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Week of September 16, 3B03

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Political Science
Richard Stubbs

th Week of September 16 , 2013 Political science 3B03 S EPTEMBER 16, 2013 SUMMARY OF CLASS BY R ICHARD STUBBS For the Americans there were two fears that drove their actions in the Cold War: 1) a security threat from the advances or possible advances made by communism in Europe and in Asia. This prompted a strategy of containment; 2) fear that America’s ability to trade with the world would be curtailed by Soviets and China. For the US this would limit their capacity to bolster not only their economy but also the economies of their allies who they wished to keep out of the clutches of the communists. A second major trend that meshed with the concerns about Soviet and Chinese expansionism was de-colonization. With the metropolitan powers in Europe much weakened by WWII colonies in Asia in particular were gaining independence and becoming ‘targets’ of communist movements. Even where the colonial powers remained communism was a threat (eg Malaya, Vietnam). Views about how economies should be developed still influenced by mercantilism. Mercantilism entailed: 1) help for new or infant industries in the form of capital, exemption form taxes, and high tariffs or a ban on competing imports; building up reserves of bullion (gold and silver) including by exporting more than importing; developing a strong agricultural sector; and giving power to the state to act. In many ways the current definition of power; as the ability to control others was turned on its head and power was seen as self-sufficiency, or the ability to act without interference by others. Note Ha-Joon Chang argues that the major economic powers US, UK and Germany all benefited massively from mercantilist policies in the past. In the post-WWII years the Bretton Woods institutions – IMF and the IBRD/World Bank – put in place a system of ‘embedded liberalism’ (a term attributed to John Ruggie). So in terms of the emergence of the economies of East Asia and the reversal of Migdal’s strong societies and weak states a number of events in sequence need to be noted. First, the events of WWII and its immediate aftermath – Korean War, regional guerrilla wars etc – destroyed the social fabric in a number of countries. Second, fighting the Korean War and preparing allies to fight against communism meant that the US channeled vast amounts of military and economic aid into East Asia. T HEMES C OLD W AR & F EARS o The fear of Moscow and Soviet Union/Red Army/ Military Threat posed by Communist Soviet Union o Second fear came out of the 1930’s – Depression, a steering factor in terms of how the general population thought about the world  Point for the Americans/Washington/United States was to avoid this happening again  American’s felt that the way in which you got out of and made sure that this did not happen again 1 Week of September 16 , 2013 Political science 3B03  Trade and economic exchange  During the 1930’s everyone had turned in one themselves and made the crisis worse  If in fact communism dominated large portions of the world, then these portions of the world would be cut off from America’s trade and it would limit America’s capacity to expand and develop their economy.  Buffer States (West & East European states)  Pacific / Asia – At the end of WWII, Soviet expansion and China Civil war (Nationalist & Communists) and this battle in China rages after 1945 because Japan withdraws and a vacuum appears (civil war takes place) o Communist wins in 1949 (Chinese Communism)  Countries in South East Asia (Britain moves out of Burma, India 1946) the Dutch leave Indonesia, French (Laos, Vietnam)  Communism seeping into different parts of Asia (George arguing for Containment of Communism, and putting on barriers) th  June 25 , 1950 the Korean War; North Koreans come down the peninsula; Democrats  Decolonization o In South East Asia and Cold war come together because of American concern about the spread of Communism o “Loosing China” & “Eastern Europe” in terms of Trading o Keen during the 1800s and early part of the 1900s to trade with China; because of it’s population; open door policy in China o But as China became Communist, it limited trade with the region; with the United States o Fears of the American’s brought on by the Cold War; Crystalized effects;  Soviet Union taking islands  China becoming Communist and South East Asia becoming unstable with a lot of communist insurgencies taking place  Security, Political and Economical reasons  If they wanted to boost their economy after the second world war, this was problematic;  KOREA – Prelude to the invasion of the Red Army? Defensive budgets go up after the Korean war; ECONOMICDEVELOPMENT  IDEAS; about the way in which Economic development should take place; o Economic Strategies to adopt?  ISI – comes out of Mercantilism  1600 till early 1830-1840;  What is Mercantilism? Helping new industries and for much of this time during the 1600s it was clothing, textile industries, no taxing;  Money into industries, no taxing, and protecting; putting tariffs on imports from outside of the country o India and textile industries; Britain had taken over India and was trying to develop it’s own textile industries. 2 Week of September 16 , 2013 Political science 3B03  If you want to bolster your industry, you protect it; tariffs coming in, low taxes on the items being made inside the country; capital;  A time when everyone was going after gold and silver; a strong nation had a surplus of gold and silver; export more than what was imported; earn money from overseas, put it in the treasury and this could be used to build up an army; o Britain, France and Spain  Needed a strong agriculture;  Needed in order for all of these things to place a relatively strong state o Self-sufficient; power in the sense came from being self- sufficient;  POWER – A  B to do X & /Y (Ability to Control)  What happens if you are a B state (a state always being told what to do, or what not to do)  How does the powerless talk about Power? The ability to act, self sufficiency, power is the ability not to be told by A what to do;  Mercantilist idea – Ability to Control; Neo-Mercantilism articulated by Alexander Hamilton; & List;  Japanese  Anglo American Economies preach Free Trade –  Economic Success is through “Free Trade”; what is interesting is that … American’s and the Brits did not actually do what they’re not telling everyone else to do; use mercantilism and protectionism; as the United States was building up the industries it was protecting it with very high tariffs. o Used very high tariff rates to protect their infant industries; o The later you industrialize the more important it is that you have protection for your infant industries; textiles, etc.  Bretton Woods (International Monetary Fund, World Bank); at the end of WWII is to put in place a system that will accommodate some aspects of protectionism, government control, with international openness;  At the end of the Second World War is the idea of Embedded Liberalism; and the idea of Liberalism is to open up trade as much as possible, but at home, states would be allowed to intervene, to help and to bring in the Welfare state (encourage education, provide health care) to protect the people from any problems that might be encountered by opening up the World Economy. Combination of open Economy and open Trade, while the states themselves are given permission to develop strategies that would provide stability and protection for their populations.  John Ruggie; embedded liberalism;  With the end of colonization; strong societies and weak states in the old
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