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Week of September 23, 3B03

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McMaster University
Political Science
Richard Stubbs

Week of September 23, 2013 Political Science 3B03 S EPTEMBER 23, 2013 Summary of Class by Richard Stubbs What are the reasons for a reversal in East Asia of Migdal’s dictum that post-colonial countries had strong societies and weak states? 1) The social fabric was torn by WWII and its aftermath 2) The influx of capital in to the region in the form of US military and economic aid e.g. US aid from 1954 to 1978 was: South Korea $13 billion Taiwan $5.6 billion By contrast: All of Africa $6.9 billion All of Latin America $14.8 billion 3) Strong bureaucracies. Johnson’s small, inexpensive, elite bureaucracy which in Tilly’s terms could a) make war) b) secure the state internally c) provide individual protection and social stability d) extract resources. Need for an education system that could produce skilled bureaucrats. 4) Developmental approach to the economy. 1) Move from ISI to EOI. 2) Develop the economic infrastructure 3) promote industries through subsidies etc. 4) develop a good education system. Destruction and then influx capital allows the country to develop Economic Philosophy of said countries; D EVELOPMENTAL S TATES ;JAPAN ,S OUTH K OREA ,TAIWAN ; INGAPORE ; Japan‟s bureaucracy; many of the economic elite were sidelined by the American‟s, one part of the elite that was needed was the bureaucracy, needed and it had been reasonably efficient during the war and remained good after the war; educated, trained and skilled. Japan colonized South Korea and Taiwan prior and had put in place good bureaucracy and had remained in place during the war; Taiwan saw a mass migration of Nationalist (KMT) from China and Beijing to Taiwan at the end of the civil war 1947-1949. During this period, those on the loosing side fled to where they could; a few of the bureaucrats. Taiwan inherited people who were skilled; skilled enough to allow them to have a fairly strong bureaucracy in Taiwan from 1949 and onwards. Hong Kong – British occupation; and aftermath of the war; reasonably good and well-educated foreign bureaucracy; Thailand; never colonized? The French were in indo-china; the British in Burma and Malaysia, and so the Thai were surrounded by colonizers. During the 1800s (1850s and 1860s); Chulalongkorn; Modernize and bring in people who can help modernize and educate so that a bureaucracy can develop – (king developed a Military and Bureaucracy) and in such a way such 1 Week of September 23, 2013 Political Science 3B03 that Thailand developed a strong Bureaucracy; it was not tested during WWII; it was on the side of the Japanese – after WWII with Americans.  Developed a strong Bureaucracy before anyone did  Did not have a colonial occupation; rather than have the French or British come in S INGAPORE ALSO DEVELOPED A GOOD BUREAUCRACY ;  Another sense of War makes States;  Domestic Problems? o Directly after the War; (1945) a communist group called the Communist group of Malay, took to the Jungle and tried to seize power from the British Colonial administration;  Chin Peng (Led move into the Jungle in 1945-1946) ~23  During the war was on the British side fighting against the Japanese; then after the war fought against the British colonials;  Initially British used a policy called “Search and Destroy” o Guerilla movement is only successful as it‟s ability to get the people on their side; (BRITISH)  Hearts and Minds approach; comes out of the period in Malaya from a guy called “Templer”  It means that what you do (address the grievances of the population). Get the people on side; provision of security, provided land, schools, found red cross, mobile units that went around and gave people health care, built roads, railways, provided them community centers that provided films. In order to deal with the grievances, needed a bureaucracy o At the end of the second world war none; o But at the end of 1957; quite a substantial bureaucracy; because the British needed the bureaucrats in order to win the Guerilla war; o Templar‟s argument = 70% of counterinsurgency is winning over the people: (right winged general). The whole of the government needs to be conducting the insurgency; In each of these countries that eventually developed the strong states; the bureaucracy in each state was quite strong;  Pilot Agencies? S TRONG BUREAUCRACY ; and a pilot agency; In order to have a strong bureaucracy and maintain good bureaucracies; need to have an education system. Need a strong education system  Korea and Taiwan; tried to lure back some people who had gone off to the United States.  Skilled people at the top were overseas trained; but majority from education system back home. E LEMENTS OF WHY STRONG STATES EMERGED WITHIN S OUTH EAST A SIAN ; 4 Element; - Developmental economic philosophy; - In many countries around the world; the political elite are not always keen on growing the economy as those in East Asia; 2 Week of September 23, 2013 Political Science 3B03 o Too interested in maintaining the status quo; o Philippines; leadership was not interested in growing the economy, maintaining their position in the economy. o ISI – protectionist approach; the problem with ISI is that in these countries; (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore) are relatively small populations. o Saturation of Market – Bicycle; developing a manufacturing center; market is saturated; and at some point have to go to Export Oriented Industrialization  How does it happen? o South Korea and Taiwan switched from ISI to EOI in 1965, why?  American Aid; conditions;  Elite recognized in order to stop communism from becoming strong in their countries needed to have strong economies; with saturation, the economy was starting to loose; if Americans cut off aid, problematic;  During the 1960‟s Korea and Taiwan switched to EOI  Hong Kong recognized they had to export early; as well as Singapore; (Independent in 1965); Immediately the government began to export; o VIETNAM WAR; 1965;  Americans decide to go into the war; were scared it would be a domino; that communism would sweep down to South east Asia  Americans manufactured an incident in which they say that North Vietnamese fired on some American coastal boats; went to congress, and congress provided money; 1965 go into Vietnam to stop it from becoming communism; between 1965 and 1973 there was a massive war in Vietnam; the Americans had half a million troops in Vietnam; just as South Korea, the Vietnam war was a huge stimuli for the region. Americans needed to set up bases; so the market again opened up for this region. Hyundai starts to take off as a major south Korean conglomerate;  Sequencing and timing for South East Asian States during the Vietnam War; EOI in 1965; the Americans also had war economy. Massive increases of goods moving between countries.  Singapore and its harbor; do not get typhoons, or tsunamis due to the geology of the harbor and surrounding islands. Fuel coming in from the Middle East and gets refined in Singapore; it is currently the second largest refinery in the world and this comes out of the Vietnam war. Major center during the Vietnam war; Thailand becomes a major power house due to the massive amounts of money that Americans spend;
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