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Political Science
Richard Stubbs

Started on: 10/28/2013 4:37:00 AM Last saved on: 11/10/2013 5:58:00 PM C LASS N OTES FOR : 3B03 McMaster University, Fall 2013 M ONDAY , OCTOBER 28, 2013 SUMMARY BY PROF; Globalization and Neoliberalism on Convergence and Divergence:  Two examples are the developmental state model in East Asia, which emphasized industrial policy and state intervention, while the American (/British, etc.) economies where the market plays a greater role  With Globalization, many argued that the two divergent systems would converge  Pressures such that all state policies (and all economies to some extent) should start looking more and more alike  Strategic/military issues tended to be put at the bottom of priorities  Economics growth (expansion)/prosperity put at the top  DISCUSSION - What kind of convergence was sought via the 'Washington Consensus' and its resultant international organizations? (STUBBS SHEET) C ONVERGENCE Important trends after the Cold war changing structure of the state and their policies  Nature of the state (impetus on economics)  State institutions; e.g. ministries, agencies, etc.; Finance ministries, central banks, and often Executive office steadily became more important  State policies; Those areas started communicating more as well, meeting on a regular basis tending to produce convergence  Also talk to the IMF, WB, OECD - again emergence of (production of?) consensus; Neoliberal ideology of WB, IMF, etc. are then disseminated to Central Bankers, Finance Ministers, etc.  Epistemic Communities  DISCUSSION - Examples of convergence around particular norms?  Notions of norms very important in politics - what is appropriate behaviour; e.g. in Malaysia much smaller personal space notions  Every culture has a different way of conducting interpersonal relations, and economic relations are interpersonal relations D IVERGENCE Globalization bringing pressures to bear (often in the form of International institutions) toward convergence. Divergence refers to the way in which different societies and cultures operate in different ways  Within each society an 'inbuilt difference' - divergence, simply because of the cultural norms, what is considered appropriate behaviour  Different responses to globalization in different regions; and even within those regions will have different responses due to difference between cultures/societies  Pressures of convergence met by pressures of divergence from different parts of the world reacting differently  Resulting from different norms informed by different histories, etc. DISCUSSION - factors that could contribute to divergence in general/East Asia (1) Can think of convergence and divergence as tensions, which react to one another? 1 Started on: 10/28/2013 4:37:00 AM Last saved on: 11/10/2013 5:58:00 PM Convergence can be a result of communication and deliberation, but it can also be an intentional process that serves particular interests To recap: Divergence: individual societies having different forms of government structures and policies Convergence: coming together of different societies, through policies. The relationship between divergence and convergence is worthy of exploration; there is a clash. Culture and political institutions are reasons for convergence; but to understand things fully we need to compare contemporary policies with historical context DISCUSSION - what was the broad historical context for the developmental state's emergence? i.e. Cold War in destruction, ideology, capital; Migdal 1. Historical Institutionalism, which is the way institutions came into being and the way that they may change direction at particular points in time a. Institutions are important in political science and are defined as frameworks which provide the rules for behaviour in a context i. Political science definition: bureaucracies, political parties, governments, lobbying groups and social movements T HERE ARE 4 ELEMENTS OF HISTORICAL INSTITUTIONALISM 1. Critical Junctures/cause: a. Why has this institution come into being? A set of factors (communism threat, wealthy US), which produce the opportunity to put in place something new or to change the direction of an old institution. b. Developmental state junctures: Ex: Korean War which meant that US had to make a decision about supporting its allies and at that point there was an emergence of the developmental state, it provides money and pushes for a strong bureaucracy, one can take any policy and institution and look at its origin c. Decision makers make the decision to put in place the initial elements of the developmental state: Ex: Korean War (1950) US president Truman put troops in to support the south Korean government, d. Agency is an important aspect of institutional analysis (decision makers who make a decision in the case of a critical juncture) 2. Feedback loop: a. can be positive or negative if a government introduces a policy then the government has to change, what will happen is the institution will whiter away b. Ex: In the Developmental State: the feedback was positive because it brought economic prosperity c. Positive feedback reinforces the policy and structure of the government 3. Sequencing: a. The argument is, its not just what happens its when things happen that is really important b. It’s the sequence in when things take place in which there is important feedback on institutions c. Ex: WWII, Korean War and the Chinese Civil War: destroyed physical and social conditions in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, thus the fabric of the state is destroyed by war; Joel Migdal “Strong states and weak societies:” 1) (Strong developmental state societies were weakened by all of these wars); 2) US engagement that produces the developmental state (money, knowledge and technology); 3) the U.S economy opens 2 Started on: 10/28/2013 4:37:00 AM Last saved on: 11/10/2013 5:58:00 PM 4. Path Dependency i. Once a particular institution or policy is put in place it tends to have a trajectory of its own ii. Ex: amalgamation in Toronto and Hamilton, thus what happens is you get path that is developed around amalgamation This is a very useful way of looking at policies and structures Public policy: how policy emerges and why we get the policies we do, this is one way of analyzing a problem and for us it helps us understand the DS, how it came into being and how it was maintained (one way looking at it) Also if we want to understand if DS are still with us and why they are still with us? LECTURE NOTES - REFLECTIONS Norms and Laws C ONVERGENCE but attempt to bring it into around the North American way of doing thinDIVERGENCE ) Rule of Law; Any problem in the future will be handled by the courts (North America) South East Asia – Concept of Trust (not “law” or written) D IVERGENCE * Relates to the way in which different societies wil
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