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McMaster University
Political Science
Richard Stubbs

Started on: 11/11/2013 5:28:00 AM C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLITICAL S CIENCE 3B03 McMaster University, Fall 2013 M ONDAY , NOVEMBER 11, 2013 Hydraulic Fracking [Production of energy for the United States] - Supposed to produce oil and gas, which will allow the United States to be self sufficient - Argument against is the environmental pollution - Making a huge difference geopolitically, because if it becomes self dependent on energy it will lower its dependence on Middle Eastern oil Overarching Events - That change the way we conduct policy at home; o End of the Cold War o Globalization - For Canada, one of the most important was 9/11 and the advent on the War on Terror Terrorism - Unifying event for many countries around the world - “What is Terrorism?” o Definition: Terrorism is the symbolic use of violence or extra normal means to change political behaviour. o Symbolic use of violence – Terrorism in this definition has to send a message.  It’s symbolic of something;  9/11 – Targets  World Trade Center (Center of Capitalism/Western Wealth) symbolic of the concern that America is getting out of control in terms of capture by the evil of Wealth;  Pentagon  Just as the IRA went after certain targets;  Terrorism sends a message, and this is why terrorism tends to take place in major cities, because this is where the newspapers are, who are able to promote this message. o Malaysia  Interesting war memorial; it’s a memorial for a lot of the wars that took place in Malaysia,  Guerrilla war; during which Chinese Malaysians / Communists took to the jungle to fight the colonial power  The War Memorial; the people who are up there look more Western than Malaysian, this war memorial was bombed in the 1970s as a symbolic act; “neo- colonialism” o Terrorism is a symbolic act because it sends a message; using violence to change political behaviour. The idea is to influence political behaviour; - Other definition: o Premeditated politically motivated violence against those that are not in the military; against non-combatant targets, by subnational groups or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience. Angie © McMaster University 1 Fall 2013 Started on: 11/11/2013 5:28:00 AM  Problems: specific about who terrorism targets, specific about who performs the acts of terrorism; “sub-national” groups or clandestine agents.  Definition comes from the state-department; o Definition by Insurance provided;  Ideologically motivated unlawful act or acts, including but not limited to the use of violence or force or threat violence or force committed on or behalf of any group(s), organization(s) or government(s) for the purpose of influencing any government and/or instilling fear in the public or a section of the public.  Different from the definition used by the state-department o Definition employed tends to be the one that benefits you the most. - The war on terrorism – propaganda and being a practical consequence o The way 9/11 has impacted the way we think about security, non-traditional security. o When we talk about the War on Terrorism it’s a slippery slope / idea due to the definitions that can be provided, the motivations, intentions behind those that label, those that act. Use of the War on Terrorism - Securitization o A notion that pre-dates 9/11 o Developed in the 1990s by a group of political scientists at Copenhagen School o Weaver, De Wilde - The point of Securitization o Actor or leader of some kind uses an existential threat - a perceived threat, which is a major threat to the society, so as to take an issue out of what would be the normal policy process. o Use a threat or a problem to take a particular issue outside of the normal policy process. o In the United States
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