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Securitization and War on Terror part 2 - 3B03 .docx

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Political Science
Richard Stubbs

Started on: 11/13/2013 5:28:00 AM C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLI S CI 3B03 McMaster University, Fall 2013 W EDNESDAY , NOVEMBER 13, 2013 HIGGOTT & PEMEPEL READINGS SECURITIZATION AS PUBLIC POLICY PART 2 Securitization cont’d – Copenhagen school development - Pointing to an existential threat, which allows policy makers to take an issue out of the normal policy process and fast track - Higgott makes an argument o Securitization has allowed the American president to treat economic policy in a manner different to the normal rules; securitized economic policy making o Security / War on Terror / 9.11 threat was used in a sense to encourage policy makers, congress, public and media to give the president the fast track approach to developing particular policies, not just security policy but also economic policies - Securitization allowed for quick implementation of policies without them being thought through beforehand B IOFUELS AS ECONOMIC POLICIES - Importance of providing energy security o Emphasis was placed on the development of biofuels  From growing particular crops - Biofuels became seen as an answer to a number of questions o Fuel security o Reduced dependency o Diversify energy resources o Biofuels are also environmental / clean form of energy! - Negative aspects of biofuels; o Utilization of corn o Rising cost of food? o Subsidies associated with the implementation of biofuel policies o As soon as you take land out of food (wheat) and put it into biofuels, this also raises the price of food o Escalating food prices account for by biofuels - Biofuels were rushed through using securitization, fast tracked due to energy security, diversity and the concern of being reliant on Middle Eastern countries for oil imports into the United States without fully understanding the consequences. - Path dependency development and argument o Canadian 5% average renewable content in gasoline, 2% in diesel and heating oil o Canadian, American and European governments have guaranteed this market (petroleum that’s sold has to have a certain percentage – 2% & 5% of renewable content o Once the policy has been put in place, there is an increase in the industry, companies set up to process biofuels with the guarantee that the government would ensure that they’d have a market o Difficult to go back having set out on the “path” o Biofuels are an interesting case of securitization, and once the policy has been put in place it’s difficult to get back the rethink! INVASION OF IRAQ AND A FGHANISTAN Clear security issues Angie © McMaster University 1 Fall 2013 Started on: 11/13/2013 5:28:00 AM - Demonstrations around the world against it, but in political elite terms there was the consensus of going in without thinking it through o Americans have not been able to win counter insurgencies (with just Grenada) o Lost in Vietnam, Lost in Iraq and not doing so well in Afghanistan o Afghanistan is where all great empires go to die - Skepticism about the Americans accomplishing anything in Afghanistan o Why? o Think of counter insurgency as a continuum, see below Coercive & enforcement Hearts & Minds Military Solution Political, social, economic, administrative, military, American Military perception police problem Military threats = military solutions Problem = all of those combined (above) In Iraq securitizing issues = move policy through, If you look at guerrilla warfare (Mao, etc.), can’t win quickly and fast tracking. What
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