Poli Sci 3b03: Week 3
Why do the strong states in East Asian become strong states?
South Korea 13 billion in capital between 1954 – 1978
Japan: 3.6 billion between 1954 1978
All Africa received 6.9 billion in capital during this period
Latin America: 14.8 billion in capital
So you can see how these small countries in Asia received massive amounts of capital.
Sequence of events: The destruction, then the capital that allows a country to develop and
then the bureaucracy
The bureaucracy in Japan was the one part of the elite that survived the world war. Many
of the economic and industrial elite as well as the military got sidelined by the americans.
The bureaucracy is well trained, educated and skilled.
In South Korea and Taiwan to some extent inherited a bureaucracy during the 2 world
war during the war during colonization which remained in place.
Taiwan in a sense inherited from Beijing who fled from there, so in a sense inherited
skilled enough bureaucrats from 1949 onwards. Hong Kong had a bureaucracy that was
started with the British. Thailand was the one country in this part of the world, that was
never colonized. The reason they developed their bureaucracy before everyone else and
on their own because in order to keep off colonial powers they started to see the
importance of skill and education in order to create this bureaucracy that they needed for
development. The other two countries that developed relatively good bureacuracys was
Malaya and Singapore.
(Malaya: Chin Peng)
The guerilla movement is only as successful if you have the people behind it.
The brits approach: The hearts and mind approach, comes out in this period in
Malaya by a man named Templer. It means that you forget about the guerillas for a
minute and you think about the hardships of the people, get them on your side. It menas
addressing the grievances of the population, provide them with security. They put in
schools, advances in healthcare (mobile units) they built roads and railways, gave them
community centres and ndnd. In order to deal with the girevances you need a bureaucracy
so at the end of the 2 world war there was no bureaucracy in Malaya however by 1957
in Malaya there was a substantial bureaucracy in place because the brits needed to win
the war, interesting.. war makes states.
You need the whole of the government to conduct the counter insurgency not just the
military. In each of these countries that essentially became strong states, the bureaucracy’s in each of these states were quite strong. (Strong, efficient, cheap
You also need a pilot agency: (MITI in Japan) This coordinated and guided the
bureaucracy in terms of economic development.
Good Education: In order to get these skilled people to work in bureaucracy’s and pilot
agency’s you need a good education system.
Developmental Economic philosophy: The leadership of a country needs to be
interested in not just maintaining their economic position but also in growing.
ISI: the problem with this in these countries( S.K., Singapore) These are relatively small
countries so if you are relying on ISI at some point it gets hard because the market
becomes saturated. At some point you have to move to E.O.I (exporting) How does this
happen? Well at South