3EE3 – Week 2 5/14/2013 2:59:00 PM
Case 1 and Case 4
Human rights and Child Labor
Class 3: Theories and History
Last Week – What is the global south? The global north? What is the GN-GS relationships like? What
theories best explain or help us understand these relationships? International structure/environment in
which these relationships unfold? Position within this hierarchy of power, however it may be defined.
Structure – balance of power (realist) & perhaps liberalism?
o Marxist approaches?
o Power and the way in which we understand power?
o How does a power relationship work between the global north and the global south
Power, Hegemon (realist, liberalist) USA
Globalization, Imperialism, Clash of Civilization
Discussion of Intervention
Where does the line reside between sovereignty and intervention
Strong position on genocide where international institutions don‟t advocate
How do we frame this relationship and these communities? Labels can be misinterpreted and often are not
singular conditions, not a singular global north or global south.
What is the historical precedence for the condition of the Global north and Global South?
Continue thinking about power in international politics
Economist 2000-2011 different views (Hopeless continent to Africa Rising)
Empire and Hegemonic Power Liberal Institutionalists Hegemon
o Formal/Informal, Legitimacy (consensus/ co-option), civilizing mission
o Global North – with influence in the Global South (law, institutions)
o Legacy after hegemonic power declines
Furthers the power of the north
o Weaker, susceptible to the rise of competitors
o Coercion, conquest, plunder
o Extraction and ability to maintain power in its position in the global system
US AND EMPIRE
IS the US an Hegemon/Empire today?
What type might it (liberal institutionalist or realist) does it resemble?
Good or bad?
Clash of Civilizations – Samuel Huntington
End of the 1980s about the end of history argument
Social and political arrangement of the world had reached its highest end
Made at the end of the cold war
o Plenty of conflict ahead
o Fault lines will not be economical, it will be cultural (based on core values, religion,
history, culture) The west would be challenged by other civilizations
Explaining North – South relations
The ability of states to capture and wield economic power
The ability to influence ideas and others
Coercive VS Consensual
o Coercive – forceful
o Consensual – Limiting the types of options that they have. Making them choose from
International Structure o Anarchy, hierarchy, securitized
Cold war which defines relationships
Post-911 is securitized, but the understanding of being for or against
(terrorist, axis of evil, defines relationship) power of ideas, realities of the
fear of the systems. Perpetrating fear and the idea of fear.
Globalized economic structure (capitalist)
o Normative/Social structure (HR, Democracy, Inequality)
Normative (relationship between states and the way we think about them)
Normative – Feel of being treated unfairly
USA (dictates the way the US respond in their foreign policy, the
way they behave towards others that it produces fear)
Because I do it, I fear it perhaps?
Two track Multilateralism:
o Lack of north south multilateralism, but in the last 5-10 years there‟s been increased
engagement (Latin America and Canada)
Emerging powers in the South
Rise in importance of non-state actors
Role of soft power
Where does power reside in Multilateral negotiations?
o Institutions as legacies of previous power balances
o Fair and equal negotiations in multilateral negotiations
Post cold war changes: Global north interest in GS; Emergent powers in GS
Cooperation –Possible Absolute Gains
o Institutions facilitate cooperation – Prisoner‟s dilemma
o “A set of rules, norms and procedures around which the expectations of actors
o States, economic actors
o Non-state actors have a role Power still matters
Ideological position – democracy, self-determination, education
o Liberty, ETC
o What is self-determination? European states have the ideas of self-determination
Decolonization in the south
Francis Fukuyama – “End of History”
Regime for the environment
o Stockholm, Bruntland Commission, Rio, Kyoto, Copenhagen
Why has there been cooperation?
o Force, self-interest and power, crisis, non-state actors, epistemic communities,
Park and Robert‟s argument about the inhibitor of cooperation (ideas) inequalities
o Inequality in impact of climate change, international climate politics and international
economic regimes (shrinking development space)
o Inequality in climate change itself
o 94% of worlds disasters due to climate and environmental crisis took place in the
o Idea that the fixes for the environment hurt the global south, more than the global
o The global North has developed due to the benefit of hurting the environment and
now it wants to put this restriction on the Global South
Malaysia proposed that every state would be allowed to cut its forestry to
o The global North was supposed to give technological transfer to the Global South
Krasner – Makers, breakers and takers of international regimes
o Global south is a taker
o The global North gets to make and break global regimes
GN-GS relationship marked by mistrust and suspicion
Explaining North-South Relations
Framing and Ideas
o World Views (Identity, Problems)
o Casual Belief (how the world works)
What does the IMF tell you? o Principled Beliefs (right, and wrong, good and bad)
Are you a kind of state that can cooperate?
Are you a state that is uncivilized?
Does framing matter?
o SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization)
Belief that Europeans were like us and thus we could trust them, (NATO) but
South East Asians were not like us and therefore we could not trust them
o Immigration policies
o Global North can be fearful of Global South immigrants because they come from a
part of the world where there‟s likely to be problems
o Perpetrated by the Media and Politicians and academics who talk about the Global
Fairness Framing & the Environment
What is fairness?
o Who is responsible for the problems?
o How do we define what the problems are?
o China‟s lead Negotiation at Kyoto Summit “In the developed world only two people
ride in a car and yet you want us to give up riding on a bus”
Who is responsible for future changes to protect the environment: The Global North or the
60% of emission from 20% of the world‟s population (Global North emits more pollution)
Those in the OECD have increased their emissions, and not reducing.
What is another inequality about those 1990s levels.
Constructivist, Critical Approaches
Ideas Matter (Identity, Norms, World Views)