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Session 3Political Sci 3EE3 Summer 2013

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Political Science
Dr.J.A.Sandy Irvine

3EE3 – Week 2 5/14/2013 2:59:00 PM Case 1 and Case 4 Human rights and Child Labor IR: North-South Class 3: Theories and History Last Week – What is the global south? The global north? What is the GN-GS relationships like? What theories best explain or help us understand these relationships? International structure/environment in which these relationships unfold? Position within this hierarchy of power, however it may be defined.  Structure – balance of power (realist) & perhaps liberalism? o Marxist approaches? o Power and the way in which we understand power? o How does a power relationship work between the global north and the global south Power, Hegemon (realist, liberalist) USA Globalization, Imperialism, Clash of Civilization Realism, Liberalism Discussion of Intervention  Women‟s rights  Genocide  Where does the line reside between sovereignty and intervention  Ethnic politics?  Strong position on genocide where international institutions don‟t advocate How do we frame this relationship and these communities? Labels can be misinterpreted and often are not singular conditions, not a singular global north or global south. Today What is the historical precedence for the condition of the Global north and Global South? Continue thinking about power in international politics Global South Economist 2000-2011 different views (Hopeless continent to Africa Rising) Gini Coefficient Empire and Hegemonic Power  Liberal Institutionalists Hegemon o Formal/Informal, Legitimacy (consensus/ co-option), civilizing mission o Global North – with influence in the Global South (law, institutions) o Legacy after hegemonic power declines o Globalization  Furthers the power of the north o Weaker, susceptible to the rise of competitors  Realist Hegemon o Coercion, conquest, plunder o Extraction and ability to maintain power in its position in the global system  Empire? US AND EMPIRE  IS the US an Hegemon/Empire today?  What type might it (liberal institutionalist or realist) does it resemble?  Good or bad? Clash of Civilizations – Samuel Huntington  End of the 1980s about the end of history argument  Social and political arrangement of the world had reached its highest end  Made at the end of the cold war o Plenty of conflict ahead o Fault lines will not be economical, it will be cultural (based on core values, religion, history, culture) The west would be challenged by other civilizations Explaining North – South relations  Power o Military o Economic  The ability of states to capture and wield economic power o Social  Soft power?  The ability to influence ideas and others  Coercive VS Consensual o Coercive – forceful o Consensual – Limiting the types of options that they have. Making them choose from these options  International Structure o Anarchy, hierarchy, securitized  Cold war which defines relationships  Post-911 is securitized, but the understanding of being for or against (terrorist, axis of evil, defines relationship) power of ideas, realities of the fear of the systems. Perpetrating fear and the idea of fear. o Legal/Institutional/Capitalism  Globalized economic structure (capitalist) o Normative/Social structure (HR, Democracy, Inequality)  Normative (relationship between states and the way we think about them)  Normative – Feel of being treated unfairly  USA (dictates the way the US respond in their foreign policy, the way they behave towards others that it produces fear)  Because I do it, I fear it perhaps?  Negotiated  Two track Multilateralism: o North-North o South-South o Lack of north south multilateralism, but in the last 5-10 years there‟s been increased engagement (Latin America and Canada)  Emerging powers in the South  Rise in importance of non-state actors  Role of soft power  Where does power reside in Multilateral negotiations? o Institutions as legacies of previous power balances o Fair and equal negotiations in multilateral negotiations  Post cold war changes: Global north interest in GS; Emergent powers in GS LIBERAL  Still Anarchy  Cooperation –Possible Absolute Gains o Institutions facilitate cooperation – Prisoner‟s dilemma o “A set of rules, norms and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge”  Central Actors o States, economic actors o Non-state actors have a role  Power still matters  Ideological position – democracy, self-determination, education o Liberty, ETC o What is self-determination? European states have the ideas of self-determination  Decolonization in the south  Francis Fukuyama – “End of History” Environmental Regime  Regime for the environment o Stockholm, Bruntland Commission, Rio, Kyoto, Copenhagen  Why has there been cooperation? o Force, self-interest and power, crisis, non-state actors, epistemic communities, NGO‟s  Park and Robert‟s argument about the inhibitor of cooperation (ideas) inequalities o Inequality in impact of climate change, international climate politics and international economic regimes (shrinking development space) o Inequality in climate change itself o 94% of worlds disasters due to climate and environmental crisis took place in the global south o Idea that the fixes for the environment hurt the global south, more than the global north o The global North has developed due to the benefit of hurting the environment and now it wants to put this restriction on the Global South  Malaysia proposed that every state would be allowed to cut its forestry to 50% o The global North was supposed to give technological transfer to the Global South  Krasner – Makers, breakers and takers of international regimes o Global south is a taker o The global North gets to make and break global regimes  GN-GS relationship marked by mistrust and suspicion Explaining North-South Relations  Framing and Ideas o World Views (Identity, Problems) o Casual Belief (how the world works)  What does the IMF tell you? o Principled Beliefs (right, and wrong, good and bad)  Are you a kind of state that can cooperate?  Are you a state that is uncivilized?  Civilized?  Does framing matter? o SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization)  It failed  Belief that Europeans were like us and thus we could trust them, (NATO) but South East Asians were not like us and therefore we could not trust them  Racism o Immigration policies o Global North can be fearful of Global South immigrants because they come from a part of the world where there‟s likely to be problems o Perpetrated by the Media and Politicians and academics who talk about the Global South. Fairness Framing & the Environment  What is fairness? o Who is responsible for the problems? o How do we define what the problems are? o China‟s lead Negotiation at Kyoto Summit “In the developed world only two people ride in a car and yet you want us to give up riding on a bus”  Who is responsible for future changes to protect the environment: The Global North or the Global South?  60% of emission from 20% of the world‟s population (Global North emits more pollution)  Those in the OECD have increased their emissions, and not reducing.  What is another inequality about those 1990s levels. Constructivist, Critical Approaches  Ideas Matter (Identity, Norms, World Views)
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