Session 6 – Week 3
What is the background of the case?
Who are the key actors?
What perspectives might they have?
What would their interest be?
What would their capacities be and limitations?
What are the problems with the questions in the case?
Exploitation, power and ethics
Origins of Underdevelopment
o Debt crises
o Structural inequalities in the Global Economic System
o State options
o Foreign Aid
o Liberalization (Western or Chinese)
o China has pulled back
Liberal argument (They do realize that at times, trade is
problematic when it is done with people who don’t do things
by the rules, live up to agreements, or provide social stability in
a state that allows it to do business)
Washington consensus VS overarching brilliance
Development – lessons?
Competition is good
Intra-south competition is problematic –
o African growth and opportunity act (AGOA) VS MFA
o Domestic trade changes affect people
African Leaders must seize the opportunity
o If the western model is rejected in favor of china’s model of politically
illiberal capitalism, will it be a case of African governing elites
choosing what is in their interest at the cost of their own citizens?
Reliance on resource exports – Dutch disease
o Netherlands, in the 1960s benefited greatly from resource extraction
history, it hurt the ability of the state to manufacture other products
cheaply. International and local problems / advantages
Conclusions of the reading:
o USA and Chinese engagement & Collier piece
African leaders need to make the best of the situations that
they find themselves in
Considerable amounts of corruption
Madagascar in the late 1990s, which was doing well, but
when the president lost the election in 2001, he refused
to go and ruined the economy.
o Easterly & Collier
Getting rid of debt?
Africa’s path to development
Paul Collier @ TED
Africa’s state’s agency?
Debt Management offices
Entrepreneurship, boost investment, and intra-Africa trade.
Debt forgiveness won’t provide money to spend on education
Debt relief doesn’t deal with the root problems, which is
economic reform and corrupt governments
African economic situation has been improving largely because
of resources, and because of what elites have learned from the
KEY POINT: It’s not about interference from the Global North.
States in the South need to make their choices.
o Economic Opportunity – Migration
Globalization and the Liberal Paradox
Migration and development
Migration and the competition state
Brain drain VS Brain Gain
Temporary Labor / Guest workers
Remittance: conspicuous consumption VS “bottom-up
116 Billion US in 2003
OECD aid in 2010 – 129 Billion
Temporary – Bring poor actors into the states that we
as citizens don’t want to do. Beneficial to them, and
beneficial to us because we get cheap labor and we
don’t have to look after them in their old age… Etc.
People that come from the Global South, remit money
back to their home countries. Is it a good or a bad thing?
What happens to the remittance money?
o Conspicuous consumption on unnecessary
o De Haas “Trade reform in both industrial and developing countries
would have a larger impact on improving welfare in
developing countries that any of the increases in aid…
industrial countries spend more than 300 billion a year in
agricultural subsidies, more than 6 times the amount they
spend on foreign aid”
Why are agricultural subsidies bad for the developing world?
Domestic governments fund agricultural industries
exports, or what they send to internal markets and this
is where states are messing with a liberal idea of
Comparative advantage – Specializing in what
you’re good at VS Natural advantage…
How do we frame this relationship?
The Cairns Group
o 19 Agricultural groups
o Doha Development Mandate
o Joint Communiqué September 2011
o Doha Round – Initiated November 2001
o Three Pillars
To improve market access
Significantly reduce support for domestic agriculture
Dramatically reduce export subsidies
o US – Became protectionist
o Canadian Wheat Board
Global Agricultural Reform
What is free trade? Comparative advantage
Neo-liberalism “Free trade is awesome” VS protectionism
State regulations VS market (compromise)
Hypocrisy, playing fair and power (realism/ neo-imperialism)
o Exercise of power? (Imperialism)
Private actors – agribusiness – domestic politics
Structural restraints VS global South’s ability to develop
Technology change, technology transfer
o How agriculture is done more efficiently?
Economic development, food and conflict
Who benefits from this relationship?
Fair/level playing field
Is reform possible? IR: North-South
What is security? For who? How?
What is security?
o National VS (and) human security
Who is security for? (Referent object)
o The state VS individuals
How do we create security?
o Emancipatory politics (Williams)
Critical security studies, sectorial security, securitization
o How do we define security?
o Security is not a given state of being
o Inter-subjective idea
o Insecurity is about what we believe to be. The way that we frame and
think about the situation?
o Environmental security
A human centric approach to security
o A condition where the governing elite is secure from the threat of
forced removal from office and can generally rule without majority
challengers to its authority
o Weak States and Conflict
Coercive VS infrastructural power (Thomas)
Coercive – ability to force population and contenders, to
put them in prison
Infrastructure – institutions of the state have the
legitimacy if wielded properly are to be used. The
weaker the infrastructure, the more coercive that will
Weak states VS strong societies (Midgal)
Weak states are challenged by strong societies
Internal: Militaries; strong-men; factions; erosion of state
External: vulnerable to intervention/invasion; contagion;
spread of small arms, criminal organizations
o Security and Weak States
Employ coercive power
Positive inducements – elite accommodation
Manipulate societal tensions – I.E ethnic tension
External cooperation Faux democratization (get aid and support in order