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Session6 Political Sci 3EE3 Summer 2013

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Political Science
Dr.J.A.Sandy Irvine

Session 6 – Week 3 CASES What is the background of the case? Who are the key actors? What perspectives might they have? What would their interest be? What would their capacities be and limitations? What are the problems with the questions in the case? Exploitation, power and ethics Review  Development  Origins of Underdevelopment o Debt crises o Structural inequalities in the Global Economic System  Solutions o State options o Foreign Aid o Liberalization (Western or Chinese) o China has pulled back  International pressure  Liberal argument (They do realize that at times, trade is problematic when it is done with people who don’t do things by the rules, live up to agreements, or provide social stability in a state that allows it to do business)  Washington consensus VS overarching brilliance Development – lessons?  Anti-Imperialism  Competition is good  Intra-south competition is problematic – o African growth and opportunity act (AGOA) VS MFA o Domestic trade changes affect people  African Leaders must seize the opportunity o If the western model is rejected in favor of china’s model of politically illiberal capitalism, will it be a case of African governing elites choosing what is in their interest at the cost of their own citizens?  Reliance on resource exports – Dutch disease o Netherlands, in the 1960s benefited greatly from resource extraction history, it hurt the ability of the state to manufacture other products cheaply.  International and local problems / advantages  Conclusions of the reading: o USA and Chinese engagement & Collier piece  African leaders need to make the best of the situations that they find themselves in  Angola example  Considerable amounts of corruption  Madagascar in the late 1990s, which was doing well, but when the president lost the election in 2001, he refused to go and ruined the economy. o Easterly & Collier  Getting rid of debt?  Africa’s path to development  Paul Collier @ TED  Africa’s state’s agency?  Debt Management offices  Entrepreneurship, boost investment, and intra-Africa trade.  Debt forgiveness won’t provide money to spend on education  Debt relief doesn’t deal with the root problems, which is economic reform and corrupt governments  African economic situation has been improving largely because of resources, and because of what elites have learned from the past.  KEY POINT: It’s not about interference from the Global North. States in the South need to make their choices. o Economic Opportunity – Migration  Globalization and the Liberal Paradox  Migration and development  Migration and the competition state  Brain drain VS Brain Gain  Temporary Labor / Guest workers  Remittance: conspicuous consumption VS “bottom-up development”  116 Billion US in 2003  OECD aid in 2010 – 129 Billion  Temporary – Bring poor actors into the states that we as citizens don’t want to do. Beneficial to them, and beneficial to us because we get cheap labor and we don’t have to look after them in their old age… Etc.  People that come from the Global South, remit money back to their home countries. Is it a good or a bad thing?  What happens to the remittance money? o Conspicuous consumption on unnecessary items? o De Haas  “Trade reform in both industrial and developing countries would have a larger impact on improving welfare in developing countries that any of the increases in aid… industrial countries spend more than 300 billion a year in agricultural subsidies, more than 6 times the amount they spend on foreign aid”  Why are agricultural subsidies bad for the developing world?  Domestic governments fund agricultural industries exports, or what they send to internal markets and this is where states are messing with a liberal idea of comparative advantage.  Comparative advantage – Specializing in what you’re good at VS Natural advantage…  How do we frame this relationship?  The Cairns Group o 19 Agricultural groups o Doha Development Mandate o Joint Communiqué September 2011 o Doha Round – Initiated November 2001 o Three Pillars  To improve market access  Significantly reduce support for domestic agriculture producers  Dramatically reduce export subsidies o US – Became protectionist o Canadian Wheat Board Global Agricultural Reform  What is free trade? Comparative advantage  Neo-liberalism “Free trade is awesome” VS protectionism  State regulations VS market (compromise)  Hypocrisy, playing fair and power (realism/ neo-imperialism) o Exercise of power? (Imperialism)  Private actors – agribusiness – domestic politics  Structural restraints VS global South’s ability to develop  IOs, power  Technology change, technology transfer o How agriculture is done more efficiently?  Economic development, food and conflict  Domestic/International interest  Who benefits from this relationship?  Fair/level playing field  Is reform possible? IR: North-South Security Relationships What is security? For who? How?  What is security? o National VS (and) human security  Who is security for? (Referent object) o The state VS individuals  How do we create security? o Emancipatory politics (Williams)  Critical security studies, sectorial security, securitization o How do we define security? o Security is not a given state of being o Inter-subjective idea o Insecurity is about what we believe to be. The way that we frame and think about the situation? o Environmental security  A human centric approach to security  Regime Security o A condition where the governing elite is secure from the threat of forced removal from office and can generally rule without majority challengers to its authority o Weak States and Conflict  Coercive VS infrastructural power (Thomas)  Coercive – ability to force population and contenders, to put them in prison  Infrastructure – institutions of the state have the legitimacy if wielded properly are to be used. The weaker the infrastructure, the more coercive that will be used.  Weak states VS strong societies (Midgal)  Weak states are challenged by strong societies o Threats  Internal: Militaries; strong-men; factions; erosion of state capacities  External: vulnerable to intervention/invasion; contagion; spread of small arms, criminal organizations o Security and Weak States  Employ coercive power  Positive inducements – elite accommodation  Manipulate societal tensions – I.E ethnic tension  External cooperation  Faux democratization (get aid and support in order
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