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Political Theory feb 12.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLSCI 3VV3
Professor
James Ingram

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Political Theory February 12, 13 James Madison (1715-1836)  Pg. 59  definition of what is liberalism  These are 2 guys who are trying to modernize  trying to synthesize what we call modern representative democracy  Modern democracy is a synthesis of different traditions  They are doing so for precise political reasons  Athenian institutions would not work in the modern world even if it was desired Constant  Constant: sociologically and historically, things have changed that we cannot be Athenians, and if we try to be Athenians, everything would go wrong o Why should we not do that?  Individual liberty vs. political liberty  No slave labor vs. Slave labor o Pg. 4:  He went to school in Scotland and Bavaria o What was going on in Scottish society? They were inventing the idea of Capitalism o World is basically changing and all this stuff about war vs. commerce o People in ancient society think much different then they do in modern society o We are more interested in private affairs  We are more peaceful because of this unlike in ancient times who want war and glory  He is not simply a liberal that we have seen in Locke  he has to worry about how he is going to work  Pg. 17: it is a danger “for from the fact that modern liberty differs from ancient liberty, it follows that it is…” o Ancient men were not careful of individual liberty o People so concerned with private concerns that they will not both with what is going on in the outside political life o Similar to Tocqueville o A despotism that is happy as its goal to keep all its citizens happy and content … only concern that the citizen is not challenged o Tocqueville saw this as the likeliest outcome of a utilitarian society  Last 2 pages are about his endorsement of political freedom because if not, freedom as a whole will be threatened Madison  You cannot run something that big in a Republican way  Big challenge the Americans faced was whether keeping a Federation of little Republics or to get together and defend each other  Big debate whether to have a confederation or to all unite their forces  Federalist papers: centralists o Arguing for a more centralized, stronger union o Key Concern: Can we have a more centralized state that will therefore sufficiently powerful to provide for the common defense o Can we have it without risking this independence that they just received o Arguing against the status quo of staying as little independent states  Needed to form a far bigger state o Debate to modify this thing  whether to pass it or not  Subject being continued: utility of the union on the….  The problem that Madison is discussing is the problem of Faction o Rousseau says that if you have a faction, ultimately you do not have a republic o Faction: group of people with a common o Pg. 88: By a faction, I understand…”  group looking at their ideals ahead of the community  If you have a faction you no longer have a general will because they are only looking at the interests they identify them ahead of the community as a whole  Faction means basis of civil war o Madison is promising a way of disarming or to solve this problem  Pg. 88: 2 methods of curing the mischiefs of faction…” o How do we control the causes of faction? : “2 methods...”  1. Destroying liberty  2. To give to every citizens the same passions an
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