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Liberalism, Historical Materialism & Social Constructivism - 3X03

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Political Science
Mark Williams

Liberalism, Historical Materialism & Social Constructivism Hugo Grotius  Late 16 -17 century Dutch Politico-Theologian  De Jure Belli Ac Pacis Libri Tres (On the Law of War & Peace)  “Man is, to be sure, an animal, but an animal of a superior kind, much farther removed from all other animals… but among the traits characteristics of man is an impelling desire for society, that is, for the social life”  Assumption that Hobbes has is somewhat flawed, and a lot of liberals start with the assumption  “But just as the laws of each state have in view…” o Advantage not of particular states but a great variety of state o Laws are not just to promote self interest of each individual state, but rather the collection o Grotius writes during the 30 years war, and still believes in some kind of great society states where they will participate in international law o Inspires movement in International Relations  Perspective halfway realism & liberalism – perhaps anarchy is a feature of the international system, important actors in the system are states, but generally speaking most states do conform to patterns of international society. Accepting of cooperation, and even creating international law. Liberal Theory‟s Greatest Expression on the Causes of War  Immanuel Kant, 1795 Perpetual Peace  Preliminary Articles: o No secret treaties that could lead to future war  Relic of the monarch time th st  This has actually been part of the international politics of the 20 , 21 century  Relative examples: one has to do with late 19 century colonialism (congress of Vienna, and 70 years after this Congress of Berlin  Western and European powers carved up colonial Africa, free trade, emancipation to people of the Congo: treaty of slavery, dispossession. Another example, after WWI desire to carve up the Ottoman Empire. Brits and the French created mandates at the end of the war would take control of specific countries (e.g Jordan, Syria, Etc)  Example: Korean 1950 & 1953, secretive between what were supposed to be Allies.  Secret treaty assumed but not real Beijing and Hannoi? (China and Vietnam) brought to the world‟s attention a few years after the fall of Saigon.  Today: United States and Israel (informal agreements for Military)  Today: Hezbollah and Syria, Iran and Hezbollah (when Israel invaded in 2006). o No independent states can come under dominion of another by „inheritance, exchange, purchase, or donation‟  Singapore and Indonesia where Singapore is intent on buying neighboring islands from Indonesia. o Standing Armies are totally abolished  Defensive realists and security dilemma. o National debts will not be a source of external friction 1 Liberalism, Historical Materialism & Social Constructivism  Kuwait was buying Iraqi debt, and at the end Kuwait starts to demand repayment.  National Debt  led to Iraq invasion of Kuwait  Chinese buying American Debt? o No state shall interfere, by force, with the constitution of another state  Responsibility to protect dilemma  R2P explicitly talks about not being able to justify regime change with this document  Intervention in Libya – Contradictory information and what the objective was o No state shall perform acts during existing war that could compromise the possibility of agreements  DEFINITIVE ARTICLES o Republican constitution  Democratic peace theory – democracies do not go to war with each other.  Kent isn‟t talking about DEMOCRACY, but republican constitution he means that there should be a representation of the people within this government  Governmental constitution can be a constitutional monarchy o A law of nations, founded upon by a „federation of free states‟  Catch with perpetual peace, it seems to be only open to those who have a republic constitution, if a state does not meet this criteria and it‟s part of a league of nations, it would unravel something else o A law of world citizenship shall be limited by conditions of universal hospitality  Allow for the free movement of people  Cosmopolitan in orientation, granting citizenship to people who want to be citizens of the country  UNITED NATIONS o February 1945 o To prevent a third world war  UNSC o Security Council o 15 States o 10 Rotating (2 year terms) o Permanent 5 (Veto Power) o Great Power Prerogatives  UN Charter (chapters 6-8) o Ch. VI-Pacific Settlement of Hostilities o Articles 33-38 o Recognition of the use of Violence in order to keep a lid on certain conflicts o Member or Non-member can bring dispute to UNSC o UNGA can bring dispute o If dispute is „likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security‟  Focus is on interstate conflict  Is international peace at threat or domestic peace?  Raises the question on whether or not “major conflict” is simply confined to national borders  There can be major spill over 2 Liberalism, Historical Materialism & Social Constructivism o Chapter VII – Action with respect to threats to the peace, aggression of the Peace and acts of aggression o Articles 39-51 o Lack of jus cogens  No derogation permitted  You can never revoke – No country can go to the United Nations and revoke prohibition on „slavery‟  War is NOT part of Jus Cogens (force is warranted, if it is to „preserve the peace of the International society‟ then it is to be used) (REALISM) o Articles 42 – who can make these decisions, the UNSC can take such actions o Article 42 – Any state of the UN is told to make available Armed forces o Article 45 – Rapid deployment of air power is supposedly responsibility of member states o Article 48 – It is the security council that comes knocking at the door of member states and tells them to help o Article 51 – With respect to sovereign deployment of armed forces. Nothing in the present charter.  What about Israel attack against Iran‟s nuclear programs? o Article 52 – Regional arrangements o Article 53 – Utilization of regional arrangements or agencies, but no action should be taken without authorization of the security council Liberal Approach Closely connected to the approach of Realism – Armed force may in „certain‟ context be necessary in order to maintain international peace & security.  Still does assume that the international system is ordered by Anarchy  It is still peopled by states  Distribution of power  Liberalism is  about improving international politics and making it „safer‟  What matters are „institutions‟ is a „rule of law‟  Describes international politics as „evolving‟ o KANT and perpetual peace o Interdependence, cooperation, peace and security  States are important actors, but others are important too  IGO‟s, NGO‟s, major private economic entities, and international regimes  Wants to open the hallway to the role of „non‟ state actors. (Major private economic institutions) o First and foremost for liberalism is the question of the Economy. o International Regimes: Loose way of talking about „international‟ institutions  Environmental regime made up of different identities.  TRIPS, endangered species acts. ETC. o Nuclear Proliferation & Atomic Agency  State‟s behavior o As results, perceptions, preferences and decisions, which are related o the nature of each state‟s political system 3 Liberalism, Historical Materialism & Social Constructivism o “Neoclassical realism” o Agents matter, actors matter, political parties matter, it matters in the minds of liberals that for example, George W. Bush was elected to be president by senate, rather than by people.. It matters to liberals, but not so much to realists o Liberals want to think about the interpersonal dynamics that exist.  Promotion of Democracy o Promotion of democracy, property, international interactions, international cooperation and human rights  Identity of Liberals  Commercial or Economic liberalism, stressing the benefits of open-market economies and widespread international trade and investment  Capitalist peace theory? The idea that maybe it‟s not the issue about democracy, but countries that ar
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