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Political Science
Nibaldo Galleguillos

3YO3 – Lecture 1 State of theArt/Lessons to be learned (September 11, 2001) - September 11, 2001 ▯ aware of how much of an impact this has had in regard to the state of the art of human rights and democracy - When it comes to human rights and democracy – there has been a regression – we are less democratic and abuse wide spread systematic abuses – it has become the norm - The development after September 11, 2001 –started in the contradiction with the other 9/11 o Which also has a similar impact on human rights and democracy but unlike the 2001 9/11 the first 9/11 brought significant positive human rights law - September 11, 2001 – History is repeating itself and as sad as the events were – throughout previous 20 years – the prof wanted to forget about 9/11 o First 9/11 – was quiet remarkable called Chile, SouthAmerica  Chile – means the end of the world o 9/11 1973 – 40 years was quite remarkable – it was also because what the government represented o Child was the first country in the world to elect its politicians as president o No other country had ever done that – in 1970 socialist SalvadorAllende– peaceful road to socialism – wanted to bring greater democratization and human rights unlike other countries that did not follow rights and constitutions - 1973 – shook the constitution of the world community – looking at Chile if you can be peaceful in socialism o it has an inner resemblance because the two 9/11’s were on a Tuesday - The international community was so traumatized what occurred after – human right abuses – so many individuals killed, sent to concentration camp and also a dictator ship for 17 years o It was so brutal - Video – Allende was a socialist o There was high hopes – without any help o United States must respect the rights of individuals in Chile o Wanted to alleviate the poverty within Chile o Social Revolution – school children given milk, middle classes were on edge o The fear was what would happen to the people and the families and the property and the funds – middle class o The government on the one hand started to expropriate land and industry o Chile was under state control – World Bank was upset  Wherever United States had a vote – they would vote against Chile o The dangers did not just come from the right but also the extreme left – hostile to theAllende ideas o As inflation rose – the right attacked through the economy - Allende – the propose economic strangulation diplomatic sabotage among the people allow the army to overthrow a democracy and put in a dictatorship - Russia – the regime of Chile ofAllende – through democratic means without the use of arms to break the resistance of strong opposition - June 1973 – with the government popularity increasing –Army from the right tried to coupe - Allende fought back by having an army - Allende on Tuesday September 9, 1973 – said he has faith in Chile and they will survive - Allende said he would never be taken alive – he would defend the constitution - Chile was second to the united states – to establish democratic values and culture way back in the 1830 o It was such a democratic state that there was political competition and everyone could win even a Marxist - Even though you have a military coupe – you will immediately come to terms that Chile was no longer democratic - Chile was different from LatinAmerica – because they were the civilized one o But when the military coupe occurred with human right abuses it was hard for the Chileans of how much the country has changed – even for the international world September 11, 1973 & Human RightsAbuses - Abandonment of the Rule of Law o The government immediately suspended government, parliament and the constitution and began to be run by military o It was in a state of war o When there is no rule of law you have total impunity – you do not have judicial support - Summary Executions o So many people were killed – 3,000 people - Concentration Camps o Grew in different cities in Chile – Chilean wore the same uniforms as the Nazi’s o Many of them could be secret in that they would not be acknowledge by the military  Military would say that did not exist – if people said that there family was being held there - War CrimeAbrogation of Geneva Conventions o The country was under the state of war – had to appeal but they did not o The country was at war with th enemy but all the regulations with war crimes would be ignored - Xenophobia o It was one of the few democratic countries – received a lot of refugees from other LatinAmerican countries o Much of Latin America had military intervention from 1964 (brazil, 1966 (Argentina), 1969 (Bolivia) – they are fled for there safety in Chile o If you were a foreigner in Chile during that time – you were in much more danger – they thought you were a terrorist - Torture o Common occurrence during these years of military rule – especially in the 3-4 years o Military wanted to state its hegemony o Chilean military went to great length to humiliate and inflict so much damage on these humans o Prof defended over 100 people – not 1 was exempted from torture - Ad-hoc Military Tribunals o Chile civilian courts relinquish there jurisdiction o Ex. Guantanamo bay o Very hard for an individual of what they were deciding on - Forced Disappearances o Common institution – people who were arrested with witnesses or with actual information who will never be seen again o The government then denies that they were even arrested - State-suspended International Terrorist Networks o Chilean military government was instrumental – form a cartel with other Latin American countries and specialized on targeting opponents to this military government o Chile ▯ military government engaged in international terrorism before 9/11 2001 o In 1976 a former official that was living as a refugee in United States and was also an officer of the WB was killed through a car bomb right in front of the white house  Called international terrorism o International activities by LatinAmericans lead by Chillan country - Emasculation of Judiciary o Important development out of the military coupe o Once the military coupe occurred in 9/11 1973, court marshals were established and the ordinary legal system stepped aside and did not do much to defend human rights that found themselves on the end of the stick 3Y03 – Lecture 2 (cont.) - What was the purpose of what occurred in Chile? o Before the 9/11 in 2001, the 9/11 in 1973 called Chile o There is a lot to learn and so many lessons to be learned such as democracy and human rights  These two 9/11s had a huge impact of democracy and human rights - Indefinite Detentions Under National Security Laws o The doctrine of national security – which under this doctrine authorities thought they could detain people without an actual prosecution – in secret places or concentration camps - Denial of the Right to Legal Defense o There was nothing that a claim could do – no prosecution - Forced exile and refugees creation o Large number of LatinAmericans needed to flee from Chile and other Latin countries - Military Intervention of University and Education Systems o Universities were intervened by the military o What could be taught in the universities  Ex. Chile – department of sociology, political science and anthropology was completely eliminated they were not allowed to study that - Abrogation of Right to Opinion (censorship) - Abrogation of Labour Rights o The right to minimum wage o Jobs  Everything would disappear - Closing of Parliament o No congress, no parliament following the 9/11, 1973 military coupe - Banning Political Parties - Creation of a Climate of Fear o The entire country is considered to be a huge concentration camp – every single citizen will be aware of the things you can say/think that might get you into trouble - Unaccountability and Impunity (1978Amnesty Law) o Brought oppression and people that were tortured and people that were killed and people that had to flee – this will occur without any type of accountability o The military could do whatever they wanted to do o Impunity in Chile – inApril 1978 passed an amnesty law calling impunity to all the crime that they committed  Military people could not prosecuted for the crimes that they did - All of the above in the name of defending human rights, promoting democracy and preserving western Christian civilization from the evil of communism o Instrumentalization that the military would do unthinkable things to the Chillan apple  If you bring in the fear – that if people are afraid they will do terrible things to other people September 11, 1973 Contributions to International Human Rights - Also remarkable because it was not unnoticed by the Human rights community – there would be a significant improvement in human rights especially international o The things that happened in Chile – the larger community would ensure that these things would not occur anywhere else o Unwillingly the dictator actually improved the human rights - International ConventionsAgainst Torture (1975, 1988) o Very important – internationally conventions were made to stop torture from occurring - Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons o People that were detained – were never seen again and still are unknown o Even though in many instances there was evidence that this person was caught o This led to the situation – that approved forced disappearance of persons to be a human right crime  Cannot happen – United Nation - United Nations ConventionAgainst Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (2006) o All of this new legislation happened because of the shock that occurred in Chile in 1973 - Creation of international Criminal Court (2002) o All of the violators of human rights could be tried within the Criminal court to operate on these individuals - Precedent-Setting Decision by the Law Lords of the House of Lords on Universal Jurisdiction on Crimes against Humanity, War Crimes, Genocide and Torture o West-Minster Parliament o In October 1998 – the Chilean dictator was named Pinochet o General Pinochet was arrested in London, England – ruled Chile from March 1919 – to 1998 – was the commander of chief basically meaning untouchable  Then in 1998 he was a senate – and meaning he could not be prosecuted o He travelled to England in 1998 – and was arrested by a Scottish Lawyer, the Chilean government said he should be come to Chile – but he was immune to prosecution but the law of lords – the supreme court – that immunity in prosecution could not be given to anyone – if they were crimes against humanity  Therefore he was responsible  This led to a huge legal debate - took 2 years – the principle was established that there is not immunity for head of a state if they are accused of violating international human right laws o British, Spain, American Government – all said to send Pinochet send back to Chile to be charged – but not will be tried  He died December 2008 – without being prosecuted o There is not immunity that there is international jurisdiction to anyone who is a head of a state if they have crimes against, war crimes, genocide and torture - Ad-hoc Tribunals on the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Congo, Liberia o Human right abuses occurred in these places - Establishments of Reconciliation and Truth Commissions in Post-conflict societies o Chile would be the first country when it returned to democracy in 1990 – reconciliation and truth commissions o Are trying to see what occurred and reconcile things that occurred when Chile was under a dictatorship  Moving from authoritarian to civilized elected officials - Conditionality ofAid to Respect for Human Rights o Foreign aid – TiedAid  We give aid – westernized individuals have given aid to LatinAmerican, andAfrican countries  Economic resources o TiedAid means that for ever dollar that we give to any developing country there is a clause that this developing country must use this aid and use these products o ForeignAid is suppose to help others but we are actually helping ourselves  Ex. 100,000 million dollars to a country to buy grain – they must spend 80 million dollars worth of grain from Canada o Aid had always been conditional – in 1975 a US senator Kennedy succeeded to past legislation to ban military aid to the Chile until things improved o 1976 – Jimmy Carter becomes president,America will only help countries that respect human rights (new condition)  Made it clear what TiedAid  Meaning countries with the worst violation of human rights would not get any aid from United States September 11, 2001 and its Negative Impacts on Human Rights and Democracy - Abandonment of the Rule of Law (antiterrorist legislation in Canada; PatriotAct) o We know that the Rule of Law – was overruled by other types of legislation aka. The PatriotAct - Summary executions, Concentration Camps, Secret Detention Locations (rendition: Canada) o Have executions with total disregard to the rule of law - Torture, War Crimes (abrogation of Geneva Conventions on treat of war prisoners: Canada) o Torture is a normal occurrence - Crimes against Humanity, Collective Punishment o The action of the United States in their actions in Middle East countries - Indefinite Detentions without Charges (i.e., Canada) o 7 or 8 people have been detained for 10 years without ever being charged or brought in front of a judge o We have some individuals like that in Canada - Emasculation of Judiciary (Canada) - Establishment of ad-hoc Military Tribunals - Denial of the Right to Legal Defense (Canada) o Normal occurrence – people that are arrested for war against terrorism are not allowed to be defended o Even the lawyer can be charged for trying to help these individuals - Forced exile and refugee creation o Many individuals need to flee – Libya,Afghanistan (2 million) - Censorship, Creation of a “chilling climate” in Higher Education (Canada) o You cannot question what occurred on 9/11 as an academic o Whether in Canada or the United States just about raising 9/11 and what happened – you are not allowed to raise reference that something else could have occurred - Creation of Collective Fear Climate (Canada) o 9/11 created climate fear o Afraid of our neighbors – call people and said they are suspicious o If you name was “Mohammed”, “Husain” – all considered to be suspicious o When people are afraid they will act in a different way - Supremacy of National Security Doctrine (Canada) - Unaccountability, Impunity ofAbusers (Canada) - Canada’s Bill to Exempt Foreign Dignitaries from Prosecution when in Canada o Any head of the state could be prosecuted anywhere if they were held accountable for human right violations – except for Canada - Xenophobia  What lessons are to be drawn from the two 9/11 for Democracy and Universal Human Rights? o Why do human rights abuses occur? o Who does abuse human rights? o What kind of regime commits most HR abuses? o Democracies – Non-Democracies? o Conservative – Liberal? o Right wing – Leftist? o Christian—Non-Christian?  What do international organization often come short in protecting human rights  What would it take to end human rights abuses?  Does instrumental democracy or substantive democracy better protect human rights?  Can human rights be prioritized?Are civil and political rights more important than social and economic rights? Objectives of lecture: The political implications of 9/11. The purpose of discussing the political implications of the two 9/11 events is to highlight the following unresolved conceptual and practical developments: 1. The extent to which human rights and democracy have been strengthened or diminished as a result of the War on Terror. 2. The extent to which human rights and democracy have become instrumentalized as a result of the “War on Terror”. 3. The extent to which the theory and practice of the War on Terror has become a totalizing, if not totalitarian, worldview. 4. The extent to which the War on Terror ignores the actions of state-sponsored terrorism. 5. The extent to which the apologists of the War on Terror ignore or silence alternative views on 9/11? 6. The extent to which the War on Terror excludes Islamic interpretations of 9/11. 7. The extent to which the War on Terror is a materialization, or not, of Samuel Huntington’s thesis on “the Clash of Civilizations”. 8. The extent to which the War on Terror resolves the theoretical debate in politics of whether the State has been created in order to serve man and woman, or whether the State is to be seen as a threat to individual rights. 9. The extent to which the “organists view” of the State pushed forth by the War on Terror apologists signals the abandonment of “empathy,” a crucial element in the definition of human rights. 10. The extent to which the War on Terror, as an endless war, with no victory in sight, signifies a whole new conceptualization of human rights and democracy. 11. The extent to which the War on Terror has changed the political and vernacular lexicon (newspeak, misspeak). 12. The extent to which the War on Terror has changed the rational and scientific way of thinking that was the great legacy of the Enlightenment (cause and effect, as opposed to religion explanation). 13. The extent to which common sense tramples good sense. 14. The extent to which human actions since 9/11 are guided by fear rather than reason (“the neither / nor” ideology) 15. The extent to which the West cannot live without the violence characteristic of capitalist economics. Friday, January 17, 2014 Lecture 3:An overview of Democracy and Human Rights - Democratization is the reference to the transition that many countries tried to undertake in 1970s from non-democratic regimes into something that is democratic o Something that resides Parliament democracy or Democracy, or Western democracy - Democracy as an old concept and practice (2600 BC) o Is a very old idea and an old notion – so old we do not know when this word in practice originated o Emerged in 2600 BC in a city in Greece inAthens  First time as a conceptthnd as a practice - Human Rights as modern concept (18 c.) – much more recent o Voltaire: 1763. Treatise on Tolerance o Rousseau: 1762: The Social Contract: Les droites de l’homme: Rights of Man  The Rights of man – become very popular that in the next year Voltaire used the expression Human Rights for Treaties on Tolerance which derived from Rousseau and other philosophers from France - Democracy as the least common of political regimes o Over 2600 years – other type of political regimes were much more popular then democracy such as:  Monarchies  Dictatorship o Practiced for some 400 years (200 years in Greece; 200 years in Western Europe)  It was practiced by the Greeks inAthens in the 3 century before the Christian era  Practiced democracy for 200 years – how did democracy come to an end inAthens and other parts of the world? • The Fall ofAthens as a result of other political regimes such as monetary or dictatorships emerged  Alexander the Great came democracy ended inAthens o Democracy emerged in the last 200 years – in North Western Europe and the United States  These two dozen countries that practiced democracy are known as long established democracies • Talking about the two dozen countries in Western Europe and the United States o This means by a large amount of humanity had no relationship to democracy  New democracies recent acquaintance with democratic rules – four fifth of the world did not have any relations to democratic rules  Much of the world is trying to go through democratization - The concept of Democracy as a contested definition o Even though democracy is old the term is still contested in the means that there is no agreement about what democracy is suppose to be about  There are different types of democracy and different understating of the term  Two levels – the actual definition vs. the historical manifestation of democracy - Athens: Democracy as “government of the people” – meaning that people inAthens and other cities in Greece would meet and engage in politics and discuss certain issues o US Declaration of Independence: government power resides on the “We the People”: Thomas Jefferson: “Governments are instituted among Men…to secure these rights…and they derive their power from the Consent of the Governed”  The power derived from government not God  Makes reference to God involvement in allowing men to have certain life • Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness  Democracy had to do with the people and nothing to do with God  Self evident truth – born free o French Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (popular sovereignty doctrine): (1789): “The purpose of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of Man and the principle of sovereignty rests essentially in the nation”.  Made the same claim – that all men are born and remain equal  Derived from the people and the government even though it might make reference to God - Afirst definition of Democracy: “a type of political regime in which the foundations of the powers of the state reside on the freely express consent of all the citizens”. - Issues with this definition: Who is a citizen? When is consent free? What is the scope/range of consent? o The foundations of the power of the state reside on the freely consent of all the citizens ▯ democracy o Who is a citizen:  Generally, rulers and government have always found ways to reduce the number of people who can be constituted into a citizen  In many states of United States to limit individuals from being able to express their consent  Have to have ID, a required residence  They are scheduled (voting times) during times when it comes time to vote o When is consent free:  The media makes and destroys political parties and political platforms  How free is our consent when we are constantly bombarded by the media  Manipulation is the norm – so how free are we?  We believe manipulation – but there are individuals that can read between the line • But the average person – that this or that person can make a change  Cannot be rational when you have so much influence from the media/money o What is the scope/range of consent:  How much consent are we giving to the government that we elected  How much political capital does someone have – need to know the range that we give  Our majority in Canada obtains less then 35% of the population - Democracy as a family resemblance structure concept: o The distinction between the Idea of Democracy as collective self-government and Democracy in its concrete historical manifestations  That the actual concrete historical manifestation can never fully embody the idea of democracy  It can come close but it can never incarnate it • Working with this basic convention/agreement – that democracy is the government of people – and due to different culture, different times so different historical manifestations democracy will act and work differently  In any given family, the children might not be to similar – (one might be taller, small, bigger, skinnier) – one thing in common they have the same parents  Ex. British Democracy – Queen  Ex. United States Democracy – Republican  Ex. Germany and France Democracy – Prime Minister • The foundation of the democracy is the freely consent of the individuals within the government o Even though they are different – they have the same foundation o The resilience of the basic conventions when we look at this two dozen democracies they are all different but they are all still part of the same family - Greece’s two meanings of Democracy: o Some people feel that democracy can be seen as negative o Greeks have two expressions for democracy  Demos as community of citizens • That only those who are citizens can participate in public and political affairs • Women were not citizen, foreigners were not citizens, and slaves were not citizens • Citizenship was only reserved for some people • 5041 – ideal number for individuals to govern themselves – Aristotle said that was the best number for the best democratic rule  Demos as the populous, crowds, the poor, wicked • Experience that did not fall well Plato, Socrates andAristotle  Socrates: “I only know that I know nothing” • What did he try to imply? ▯ it was a statement about how people in Athens that tried to work within democracy but they didn’t know that they didn’t even know  Aristotle: Democracy as “rule by the mob” - Greece’s two democratic families – two families emerged o Athens: Democracy as government of the people (effective expression of the peoples’ will)  The people directly elected those who were going to govern themselves  People in Athens did not hold elections – why did they not hold elections? • Because they thought they would get manipulated by the rich individuals (and will take control) o Sparta: Democracy as government of the politicians (political realism)  Representative democracy emerged  There were elections for members of the city council  Measure based on the applause of the individuals in a crowd o 2 expressions ▯ government of the peoples will and government of the politicians - The 19 c. convergence of the two families into the Western representative democracy model o The 2 expressions will come together and turn into Western liberal representative democracy - On Democracy Today o Democracy as a commonplace term (no objections to it) o Why is the meaning of D little discussed today? Why is there no dialogue about:  Conditions of possibility of D.?  Linkage between citizens and social rights?  Relationship between Equality and Democracy?  The distortion of the meaning of Democracy • * Democracy “with adjectives” Tuesday, January 21, 2014 Lecture 4: Review: WWW - Freedom something that everyone aspires to - What else did we say about democracy? o Democracy – gave us two different way that citizen participate in democratic politics  Sparta ▯ democracy of government of the politicians  We have do different trends of politics for the people or for government Origins of Human Rights - We tend to believe the institution and culture of human rights is associated with: o The 1789 French Revolution: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen  This set the beginning, set the development of human rights culture  In 1989 – how is this year significant? • The berlin wall fell – communism fell o The 1776American Declaration of Independence o The 1215 Magna Carta (Charter of Liberties)  Written in Latin – this was the language of the ruling classes  King John had a famous cousin – who Richard the Lion Heart – who was King John arch nemesis  French were celebrating that they had the magna carta o The Cyrus Cylinder (2545 BC)  This is the first human right code in the history of human kind  King Cryus or Cyrus the Great – the first person to actually to make and bring about a human code  Persian empire was expanding – going under the control of the Persian king – passed an era where people had the right to keep their own religion and their own religious artifacts even if they were different then king Cryus own religion  Foreigners in the Persian empire were entitled to certain rights  Even if you forget about religion freedom or cohesion freedom – the more important component was the decision of king Cyrus to give freedom to Jewish people – could return back to Israel • Built the second temple in Jerusalem  The catholic pope said they would expel him from the catholic church – so this led to a civil war in England – when the king was overthrown o The 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights  When do rights come to Human rights – that are natural, equal, universal and also accompanied by empathy o Rights only become Human Rights when they are:  Natural rights (inherent to human beings only) • Only reference to men and women as human persons – rights that are intrinsic  Equal rights (applied in the same way to all) • They apply to the same way to everyone – they must be treated in the same way • Clash with parli-mental democracy  Universal rights (enforceable everywhere) • Human rights that are natural, equal and universal  Accompanied by Empathy (“seeing others like us”) • Viewing someone like you • It mean that human rights could only make sense when men and women viewed others as also men and women • When we see other individuals as persons too! In other words, human rights depend both on self-possession and the recognition that others are equally self-processed • It is the incomplete development of the latter that give rise to al the inequalities of right that have, at least at the philosophical level • Preoccupied d us throughout history o Without empathy, i.e. seeing other like us equality could not have a deep meaning, nor could it have any significant political consequences o The equality of souls in heavens is not the same thing as equal rights here on earth FOR RIGHTS TO BE HUMAN RIGHTS ,ALL PERSONS EVERYWHERE IN THE WORLD MUST POSSESS THEM AND ONLY BECAUSE OF THEIR CONDITIONAS HUMAN BEINGS. - They need to meet the four criteria for it to be considered human rights o Natural, equal, universal and there needs to be empathy - Human Rights and Politics: Human Rights only become meaningful when they acquire a political content. They are the rights of individuals living in society, and that must be guaranteed in the secular political world. (American Declaration of Independence, French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, UN. Universal Declaration of Human Rights). o They are exactly that – they have no power of enforcement – theAmerican revolutionaries and French—they just show a lot of passion o We become passionate about it but they have no power to enforce anything o People that care about human rights – you need to get involved within politics o Without involving yourself without political process you can see the emasculation of human rights o People have these rights because they live within a society o What is society?  Some total that people live within it - AHuman Rights culture emerged in the 16th century; naturalized itself with the French Revolution in the 18th century, i.e., during the Modern Period of the Western world, and realized itself in the second half of the 20th century. o Emerged due to human manifestation – that we call Western Europe (North Western Europe) o Enlightenment or Modern era – through the historical transformation and cultural levels - Conceptually, a human rights culture developed along the development of social scientific theory: rational and analytical theories concerned with how human beings and society could be organized and structured in order to bring about outcomes such as justice, equality, or some form of it, and progress. [Positivism] o Emphasis that Human rights emerged due to historical events or scientific theories  They were rational and logical  Beginning in the 16 theory • Called Positivism Science - Historically, the emergence of Human Rights is related to four dialectical relationships, also in the Western world: o a) Individualism vs. Collectivism (nationalism) o b) Faith (Church) vs. Secularism o c) Nation-State vs. World system o d) Capitalism vs. Impoverization - Dialectic is a set of historical forces that develop in opposition to each other, in such way that both forces increase or decrease in importance simultaneously. The contradiction these opposing forces create is necessary for their continuous development and, generally, no resolution or synthesis of the contradiction occurs; rather, the nature of the dialectic tends to be transformed into a different set of opposing forces. Friday, January 24, 2014 Lecture 5: Review - Speaking about the origins of Human Rights - Human rights imply the four components: need to be natural, equal, universal and need to have empathy - For human rights to have any meaning and be meaningful they need to be supported by law and legislation o No matter how important it is for everyone the Human Rights or UN Rights – they are just declarations – in order to make those human rights into human rights we need politics o We need to understand that all this declaration with bringing in politics  With various different negotiations - Human rights are the outcome of well known historical processes – they began, in the 16 th century in western Europe o Emerged in the west and we might have issues with people that say that the human rights code already existed during the Persian empire or in Chinese or Indian culture - Origins of human rights: AWestern phenomenon (16 century)th o Enter modernity where all the changes began o Incredible social scientific development during the 16 century  Theories that are based on critical analysis  Based on how men and women in society could be organized under structure and to bring about, justice, progress and equality • Progress comes into play – what else comes into mind, which is strictly based on progress and the west o The idea of Evolution ▯ from this time and onward – we are becoming better and better individuals – we are constantly evolving and constantly inventing human rights o We have not exhausted to stop making human rights o Caused by development of social scientific theory:  Rational and analytical (Positivism: observation, experimentation, and validation) • Bring to our attention our very own cultural heritage • We believe in positivist science – the doctrine that came out Positivism o Positivism ▯ everything should be rationally and scientifically justified – so justified by reason o Rational and scientific theory wanted to adopt the scientific method from physical science (chemistry, biology)  Which comes from observation, validation and research  Rationality comes from ▯ were explained until the new methodology came into play  Kant said that the human evolved through human stages – so abstract (philosophy), but moved to fictitious or religious phenomenon (until this period, so if something occurred, it was God’s will)  We are constantly evolving  Concerned with Progress, justice, and equality (some form of) - Scientific Theory: o Objectivist sociology (Durkheim: The Division of Labour in Society; Suicide): women/man as the product of society  Associated with Emile Durkheim ▯ long treaties which had to do with suicide  What did suicide have to do with this, what was he talking about ▯ alienation and 4 different types of suicide  Why did he talk about it and why is his hypothesis still important ▯ he was talking about the changes that society is experiencing – in the case of Durkheim – the changes within the industrialization the pros and cons  When society is changing – women and men are conservative notion are afraid of the unknown  During this period people cannot cope with the unknown so then they result in the drastic nature of suicide  The Division of Labour in Society▯ important for objective sociology – that man and women are the product of society – that society that shapes men and women  He is before considered with how to find mechanisms that would ensure that every man and women made by the state – by the larger society  The society is concerned with integration, adjustment and socialization • To occupy the different roles of society  The major problem – is social order – what mechanisms will make people to adjust to making in common possible • How do the individuals that have different jobs – somehow live and have society function as a whole  Subjectivist sociology (Weber: Economy and Society, The Protestant relate this later on in class Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism): society as a product of human agency)  Max Weber ▯ one of the greatest sociologists  There is a relationship between capitalist economics and England being a protestant country  It is man and women who make society ▯ they are social agents and actors who have autonomy and independence – that will guide their behavior that will have an effect on society that changes based on their behavior • Ex. Durkheim places so much emphasis on structure – he would go as far as to recognize in some moments (collective enthusiasm) man and women can transform a society • Max Weber – that gives great emphasis on social actors and autonomy actor that at some point the independent actor can become prisoners which he calls the iron cage o All the independence and autonomy can be taken away from individuals (freedom stripped away) • Max weber said that a bureaucrat 9-5 they behave in a way that is un-human but after 5 they act as a human again (analogy for iron cage) - This is the discussion of the origins of human rights – which was influenced by very highly intellectual individuals - Scientific theory that would influence different processes; o Caused by historical processes at the economic, social, ideational, cultural, moral, political, organizational, and legal levels: the dialectics of modern western development: - These are historical dialectical processes; ▯ Dialectic is a set of historical forces that develop in opposition to each other, in such way that both forces increase or decrease in importance simultaneously. The contradiction these opposing forces create is necessary for their continuous development and, generally, no resolution or synthesis of the contradiction occurs; rather, the nature of the dialectic tends to be transformed into a different set of opposing forces. o Human rights to begin to emerge in the 16 century the historical development is a dialectical sort – contradictory way – but there is constant evolution o These dialectical historical forces are: o They have to do with the struggle or ideological struggle for domination  Individualism vs. Collectivism (nation-state building): the Great Ideological Debate • Contradiction between these two institutions: o Individual (human cannot make any sense without individualism) – did not exist up until this time (Greek’s did not develop from the individual) o What is the difference from an individual from another:  16 century; a name – Our Last name – who we are is what our name is th  Surnames only came into effect in the 11 century  No individuality – there was therefore no individualism  This is crucial in human rights ▯ no individuals no human rights  Foundation of politics before the surname was based on the family • The 16 century is when the modern European state comes into play – simultaneously when individualism is promoted and so is collectivism which is the state – called the Great Ideological Debate o In political philosophical times it stared in the 16 century when collectivism and individualism clashed o Do men and women exist to serve the state or does the state serve the man and women? o Never been resolved ▯ the state exists to guarantee democracy and human rights to individuals or is the state to be seen as a threat to the same rights of human rights o What is more important state or individual? o Positivism ▯ scientific method to understand social issues  Even through this rational scientific theories there are strains  Subjective and objective o In historical terms in Western Europe ▯ the 2 enlightenments we see significant changes within the economic, moral and political ideas Lecture 6: Continuation… Dialectical Modern Western Development Processes  Individualism vs. Collectivism (nationalism) • Oppositions between what is the emergence of an unique human being (very clearly understood human processes) • The concept of the individual occurs in the contradiction to collectivism o Collectivism ▯ is the expansion of the modern European state • The individual and the state are both emerging o Society, politics and economy was changing and philosophers were talking about these changes • The Major Debate ▯ we have two strengths in political theory is that left and right side of politics o State vs. Individual • Do men and women exist to serve the state (liberal) or does the state serve the man and women? • Who is at whose service? • Does the state need to be seen as a predator or is it threatened?  Faith vs. Rationalism/Secularism (Protestant Reformation) • Reformation movement ▯ early 16 century goes a long away to explain another type of conflict that had to do with organizational supremacy ▯ that will rule our lives, the state or the church? • Secularization ▯ place the church where the church belongs so the private domain • The public domain ▯ the state controls • Even though there was a separation – we are still discussing the same issue  National States vs. World System (supranational) • The idea of the individual was emerging same as the state another supranational ideal was coming into play ▯ the world system • The state has supremacy ▯ We are living in a place where supranational state is must more important (WTO, WB) is much more important than the state • So what is important now? Individual, state or supranational state? • Alot of pressure from foreign investors for Canada to get away from public organization o Soon Canada will be like the US – private universities  Economic Expansion (capitalism) vs. Impoverization • WTO ▯ causes problems when a country is trying to run its state • Much of this progress is attributed to capitalism ▯ comes from the capitalist • Person that came into play within the 16 century o Marx ▯ life long dream was to get rid of capitalism is the most progressive force that humanity has ever seen • What is the most distinctive force within capitalism? o Exploitation within Capitalism ▯ it is more exploitive (capitalism) than any other type of force o Poverty ▯ capitalism created wealth and poverty at the same time through different types of mechanisms  Ex. 85 people in the world has the much capital as 3.5 billion people • This is clearly very problematic Bursts of Humanism - Can be put into two great struggles in modern western world o Struggle for whether it is the state or the church so secularism o Great struggles over class supremacy ▯ which class will be the ruling one, which one is the governing one  Bourgeois  Working-class o Last 500 years was going over these class struggles - How did the notion of the individual come? Individualism - Personalization of: - During the 2 enlightenment – people and individuals can start being seen as separate from a social grouping o Ex. The romans, Greeks did not see the difference between men and women as compared to family - Political relation trade & commercialization of production (PROPERTY, PROFESSION, MOVEMENT) o Limits and constraints on the kings i.e. demanded early conventionalization of individuals not from the family  Magna Carta – limits on King John – judicial firmness  The right to be judged by a judge  The right to be judged by a jury  The right not to be expelled o We begin to see the early developments of human rights – only to some – not to everyone o Only the noble ones got this right o This early development needs to be understood for another institution  Kings were never absolute in their discretionary powers  The king was not about everyone o The idea of individualism took shape due to economic changes in terms of economic growth and commercialization  Capitalist began to be known in the 15 and 16 century o The economic changes contributed to the development that persons can be separate from other social groupings  Economic – unique character faced the monarchy the fruits of my own work should be mine  So what I make should not be appropriated by the monarchy or the church  It is MINE! • Private Property o John Locke ▯ talked about the right of the individual of private property where all the other rights come out of  Capitalist o The same individual will demand the right to pursue the profession of his own choosing  That right to choose what you want to do with your life in the 15 century you were not allowed  Everyone that was born was born into a fixed society • Ex. Fisher • Shepard  You have the same profession as your parents o I demand the right to go wherever I want – without asking any permission  If you are leaving a state you cannot go anywhere unless you ask permission  What is this right – Mobility Rights - The emergence of the Modern European nation-state - Individualism - Political changes (MAGNA CARTA, LIBERAL IDEAS) - The reformation (freedom of conscience, opinion) - The counter reformation (expansion of education) - Empathy Friday, January 30, 2014 Lecture 7: Individualism Review (Continuation from lecture 6): - As this bourgeois emergence brought the earlier rights that we can relate to o Mobility rights o Private property  Capitalists – wants to chose his or her own profession  Previous 1500 years were born with a fixed, ascribed status in which your family was associated with for many years  Family Shepards’, maybe the person wants to be a businessman • First time someone said this is mine, I want this… • All of this will be supported by John Locke and will rationalize the rights of humans based on capitalism  You cannot be a capitalist unless you want more and more • You demand to mobility rights – Freedom of movement • Did not exist until this time – always needs to ask permission from here to there • Cannot go where you want to go  These rights did not come from some abstract figure – from God, it is rights that people fought for  Not divine rights – it is historical processes o These rights were not human rights yet – only applied to some people  Right to chose profession  And movement • Only some people of the bourgeois not all  Very limited rights that were not consisted human rights – they are lacking one fundamental things • Universality o The next stage in the dialectical process – in which a large number of other rights comes into play  Protestant reformation • The reference to the split and division of the Catholic church – we will have the catholic church which dominated most of the western world after the collapse of the roman empire • Many complaints about the faithful Christians of how corrupted the church was o Ex. Selling of indulgences  Buying salvation of those who die (to go into heaven instead of hell) • Martin Luther denounced the church – listed a bunch of grievances that was wrong with the Catholic Church • This is crucial for the development of individualism • Most important aspect • Contributed to individualism which focused on salvation • This had to do with salvation ▯ relationship with God o No longer need the church because it is between the individual and God o It is the individual relationship with God just you and God you do not need the priest 1. Bursts of Humanism (12 & 16 century) a. Human rights do not make any sense ▯ until we figure out who is refers to which is the individual b. Takes over 100 years to develop the ideal of the individual where the human rights will apply to them c. Need to separate the other institutions that are emerging: i. Individual of a unique human being ii. The nation state d. The institution of the family and collectivity and the city state become less important due to the emergence of the nation state and the individual at the same time i. Due to economic changes in 14 and 15 century ▯ metaphor for the emergence of capitalism 1. Without capitalism ▯ many of the rights that we take for granted we would not have if capitalism never emerged 2. Some people look at it positivity and some look at is negatively 2. Social Differentiation as a result of Economic Changes and Commercialization of Production 3. Personalization of Political Relations under Feudalism 4. The Reformation Movement (1517): New Rights: Conscience, Religion Opinion a. Freedom on Conscience – express your own opinion without any consequence b. After Martin Luther denounced the church what happened? c. When do we get the right to think the way we want? i. Lead to brutal religious war – people are still killing in order to make one religion dominate over another th ii. We have no progressed at all from the 16 century iii. The concern of the individual apart from any other grouping 5. The Counter-Reformation Movement (the Development of Educational Systems), Outcome: Loss of Church Supremacy a. There was a concern for children b. Children were seen as miniature adults – same personality and same ideas c. As a result of the notion of the child we see other historical development that will reinforce the powers of the churches but also the modern European state d. The realization that individuals that were going to have this relationship with God you need to know Gods book which is the bible i. People did not have access to the bible ii. Therefore they hired the priest ▯ but the print was made, so the bible was translated into new languages e. Establish a relationship with God ▯ due to the invention of the print f. However, you first need to learn how to read ▯ therefore, school comes g. What is the origin of school ▯ Sunday school, learn to read at the church i. If there were going to be successful in retaining the children they needed to educate the children 1. Sunday Church ▯ early origin of school and education th th ii. People did not know how to read and write until the 16 and 17 century h. As a result to this concern, Protestants were the first to think of the idea to educate children i. Original sin ▯ Protestant’s wanted children to get salvation i. Children are important ▯ part of the unique idea of childhood j. Need to develop the ways to develop children’s education i. Need new tools of ways to educate these children k. 1540 ▯ the catholic church established the Jesuit order i. Go back 400 years who developed with the commitment to educate children l. Education comes into play due to the conflict between religion m. Loss of church supremacy: i. As catholic and protestants have violent conflict they lost
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