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Lecture 2

POLSCI 2J03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: English Civil War, Cardinal Virtues, Leviathan

Political Science
Course Code
Richard Mc Master

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Term paper due in Early June
Paper on global Political Economy
Check avenue for details as to how to write paper (avenue not up yet doe)
o Economic nationalism
o Mercantilism
o State centric
o Zero sum game
Contrast to liberalism
Winners and losers and one must take it upon himself to be a
winner and sometimes you must make sacrifices and allow
yourself to progress at the expense of others
o Thomas Hobbes
1588-1679 English philosopher
Lived in period of upheaval and turmoil (English civil war;
England in period of anarchy)
Social Contract theory
Idea that order can best be attained by a group of
individuals who bind themselves together and
formulate a craft a state a leviathan a Gov. that
represents all the diff individuals within society
Out of the feat of state of nature
State of nature
Famous quote: What is life without a state of nature?
Nasty, poor, brutish and short. In a state of nature there
is no prosperity only poverty and human suffer
Everybody is equal in state of nature; because
everybody has the ability to kill everyone else;
associated with fear, death, and destruction
Gives some rights to state so government can provide
But, need strong, central authority for law, prevent civil war
and anarchy
First comes order
And then perhaps justice
You cannot talk about markets, justice, free trade, gold
standards, without order! Order has to exist before that.
And the ultimate guarantor of order is the state.
Famous quote from Hobbes leviathan chapter eight
Because every man is against every man nothing can
be unjust
Anarchist condition at this time
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There is no common power and therefore there is no
law; no morality
Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues
Where will we find this state of nature:
In the interstate system: international and relations
between states because there is no leviathan for these
states. The state does not decide to wave its own rights
to support a super leviathan. And therefore force and
fraud are the two virtues, no ethics or justice
State of nature may have never really existed but it is
between states and perhaps aboriginal people
Statist model
o Wealth is interdependent on three other
a secure arrangement between
individuals and secure
arrangements between states
o Power
States will need to attain power because if
I don’t I create an incentive within this
international structure for others to
increase their power at my expense
(I being a state)
o Recognition
Mutual recognition
Is there no justice or injustice?
Is international politics a society?
More from the leviathan chapter
No industry
o Does not fit with the world in which we live in
o Globalization
No culture of the earth
No trade or cooperation
No knowledge or society
Is the international system nasty, brutish and short
No concept of time
What is the logic of an anarchic system? The state of
o In that condition ruled by fear the logic is that
you want to get out of that culture
o Which is why the give their rights to the
leviathan aka the government to create
institutions making order
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