INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING: Instrumental Conditioning: Explicit training between voluntary behaviours and their consequences. The learning of a contingency between behaviour and consequence. Classical involuntary; operant voluntary. Ex: touching a hot stove = burnt hand. Thorndike: Studied cats in a puzzle box (food outside box for motivation); main focus on overt behaviour rather than mental elements. Predicted that it would take less time to escape in later trials. Actually found: the frequency of random behaviours gradually decreased over time. Favourable behaviours are stamped in; unfavourable behaviours are stamped out. Law Of Effect: Stamping In = a behaviour that results in a positivefavourable consequence. Stamping Out = a behaviour that doesnt associate with any rewardhas negative consequence. Reinforcer stimulus that, when presented after a response, leads to a change in that rate of response. Types of Instrumental Conditioning: Presentingremoving a positive reinforcer; presentingremoving a negative reinforcer. Reward Training: Presentation of a positive reinforcer; increases the frequency of a behaviour. Presentation of a Positive Reinforcer Reward Punishment Training: Presentation of a negative reinforcer; decreases the frequency of a behaviour. Presentation of Negative Reinforcer Punishment. Authority figure may become a trigger for distresspain. Omission Training: Removal of a positive reinforcer; decrease in the behaviour being reinforced. Time out procedure removes positive reinforcers, and often stops the unwanted response. Removal of a positive reinforcer does not equal presentation of a negative reinforcer.