RESEARCH METHODS I: Scientific Method: The Scientific Method ensures reliable and meaningful research. Seven Steps: collectinganalyzing data while minimizing bias or conflicts. 1. Theory collect a general set of ideas about how the world works. 2. Hypothesis form a testable statement guided by theories that make predictions between two variables in the theory. 3. Research Method determine the way the hypothesis will be tested. 4. Collect Data taking measurements of the outcomes of the test. 5. Analyze Data understand the data and discover trendsrelationships between the variables. 6. Report Findings publishing articles in scholarly journals. 7. Revise Theories incorporating new info into our understanding of the world, as well as revisions to theories (usually due to a paradigm shift). Paradigm Shift a dramatic change in the way we think. Conducting an Experiment: Anecdotal Evidence evidence gathered from others or self experience. o Problems with Anecdotal Evidence: Single experience might not properly represent the theory. Personal experience might not represent others. Cannot be sure about one factor affecting the results. Experiment the scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another. Independent Variable manipulated by the scientist. Dependent Variable observed by the scientist. NOTED: o Experimenter usually controls the level of the independent variable; also, measures this effect on the chosen measure of the independent variable. o Scientists must use more rigorous approaches when testing hypothesis. o Single experiment does not represent continuous effects. o Your experience could be different from others under the same circumstances. Control Groups: Helps to further manipulate the independent variable while measuring the effects on the dependent variable. Similar people in groups, difference between peoplegroups should be minimal. Experimental Group receives a manipulation of the independent variable. o Control group does not receive a manipulation. o Allows for one to compare the dependent variable for both groups.