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PSYCH 1F03 (137)
Joe Kim (131)
Lecture 8

PSYCH 1F03 Lecture 8: 8

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1F03
Professor
Joe Kim

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ATTENTION: Phenomenon Model Hypothesis William James defined attention, which is a challenging task. Selection act of attending to an object to select it apart from the unattended objects; ex: light flashing in periphery o Attention is an active process; we actively choose where to select our attention. Attention (alternate definition) ones conscious ability to attend to the info that is relevant to our goals. o Irrelevant info acts as noise that makes it difficult to attend to the important info. o When irrelevant info overwhelms us, we get distracted. Automatic and Controlled Attention: Automatic Processes involuntary capturing attention through being triggered by external events; fast, efficient, obligatory. Controlled Processes voluntary, conscious attention to objects of interest; slow, effortful (due to more cognitive effort); ex: driving (changing lanes, stations, etc.) o Our attentional resources are limited, and must be controlled carefully. Salient Information found in automatic processes; info that captures our attention automatically, intentionally or not. The Spotlight Model (Michael Posner): Attentional spotlight focuses on one part of the environment at a time. Can be consciously directed across a visual scene; can also be taken over by unconscious processes that quickly grab your attention. o Objects within the spotlight = faster reaction time, higher accuracy. Cuing Paradigms: o Cuing to target can ease the fluency of processing at that location. o Test the automatic processes of attention. o Participant determines whether a star appears in the left or right box on a screen. Box that flashes may not contain the star. o Flashing box automatically attracts the attentional spotlight to the cued location. If target is in cued location: attention will amplify the perceptual processing of the target (detected quickly). If target is in uncued location: target detected slower, since attentional spotlight is directed elsewhere. o Attention does not immediately rely on sight; attentional spotlight can still miss important information.Filter Models: suggests that attention works by filtering distractions and allowing only important information through o Cocktail Party Effect the ability to separate target sounds from background noise is based on physical characteristics (gender, pitch, speech speed). Ex: in a busy party, you can still hear and listen to your conversation partner o Filters suppress noise; spotlights enhance stimuli. Information Filter Further Processing. Example: Flower o Spotlight model: enhances the flower, relative to the grass o Filter model: attention ignores the grass and allows the flower to be attended to Single Filter Model (Donald Broadbent): o Attentional filter selects important information based on physical characteristics; allows the information to continue on for further processing. o Information that does not pass through the early physical filter is deemed unimportant. o Accepts less information than dual f
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