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PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)


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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Language (Module) Module: Introduction Subtopic: Natural Language -language is regular-meaning that it is governed by rules and grammar (sentence can be reorganizes and still retain its meaning) -language is arbitrary- lack of resemblance between words and their meaning -language is productive- limitless ways to combine words to describe objects, situations, and actions Subtopic: Whorf Sapir Hypothesis - Whorf Sapir Hypothesis: language influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world Subtopic: The Structure of Language -Morpheme: the smallest unit of sound that contains information -often a word, but some words contain multiple morphemes -Phonemes: constituent sounds when breaking up a morpheme Subtopic: Syntax and Semantics -Syntax: rules that govern how sentences are put together, aka grammar -Semantics: meaning of each individual word (meaning of the sentence) Module: Developmental and the Segmentation Problem Subtopic: Language Development -Milestones: -12 weeks: make cooing sounds -16 weeks: turns head towards voices -6 months: imitates sounds -1 year: babbles -2 years: uses 50-250 words, uses 2 words phrases -2.5 years: vocabulary > 850 words -Babbling: characterized by drawn-out sounds made of a variety of combinations of vowels and consonants -may sounds like real sentences or questions because of the use of inflection and rhythm in the production of the babble -combination progresses to become real words Subtopic: Language Explosion -1.5 6 years children enter language explosion and vocabulary increases rapidly and have for the most part mastered major aspects of language Subtopic: Language Comprehension -language production can be limited by factors such as vocal anatomy Subtopic: Segmentation -translates into perception that a person speaking an unfamiliar language often sounds like they are speaking very quickly Subtopic: Implications -children who now had larger expressive vocabulary had earlier demonstrated good speech segmentation skills as infants (and vice versa) -findings could lead to infant screening tests to predict later problems in language development and allow for early treatment interventions Subtopic: Infant-Directed Speech - Infant-Directed Speech: tendency for mothers to use higher pitch and exaggerated changes in pitch when speaking to infants -may help infants learn to segment speech Module: Universal Phonetic Sensitivity Subtopic: Different Phonemes -infants can discriminate more phonemes that adults can -Universal Phoneme Sensitivity: the ability of infants to discriminate between any sounds they’re tested on -includes sounds from non-native languages -clinicians test this by doing the head turn test -usually lose this ability by 1 year old -learning new language at young age leads to superior mastery of all aspects of language Module: Accents Subtopic: Introduction -various accents within a language contain subt
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