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PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)

Forming Impressions.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Forming Impressions (Module) Module: Attribution Theories Subtopic: Correspondent Inference Theory -(Jones and Davis’ Theory) people make inferences based on three variables: degree of choice, expectation, and the intended consequences of the behaviour Degree of Choice: -chose to act in the observed behaviour in question or was randomly chosen/ assigned Expectation: -how expected a particular behaviour is -uncommon behaviour gives a lot more information than common behaviour (no reason to make inferences for normal behaviour) Intended Consequences: -intention of behaviour -ex: tobacco company advertising advocating lower smoking levels (suspicious) vs familiar person/ family member advocating same position Subtopic: Covariation Theory -how you determine if a given behaviour is due to an individual’s personal disposition OR the situation and circumstances -three variables are considered to determine if a behaviour is dispositional or situational: consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus Consistency: -does the individual usually act this way in this situation? -if yes, can continue to seek explanation for behaviour Distinctiveness: -does the individual behave differently in different situations? -yessituational (driven by the situation) -nodispositional (driven by his disposition) *tendency to act in a specified way Consensus: -do others behave similarly in this situation? -yessituational (everyone similarly influenced) -nodispositional (each individual’s disposition) Module: The Fundamental Attribution Error Subtopic: Fundamental Attribution Error -often overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate role of situational factors -ex: get cut off; “bad driver!”making assumptions: bad driver, aggressive person rather than considering stress and challenges of heavy traffic -Fundamental Attribution Error: tendency to overvalue dispositional factors for the observed behaviours of other while under-valuing situational factors -place of the FAE in social psychology Subtopic: That Actor/Observer Effect -FAEassume behaviour of others is due primarily to dispositional factors -Actor Observer Effect: consider the situational factors for your own behaviour -more vulnerable to making FAE when determining causes of behaviour of others rather than own behaviour (more aware of self and therefore more aware of situational influences) Subtopic: Cultural Differences -FAE widely observes in Western society, but not necessarily universal finding (influenced by different cultures) -how likely American and Indian children and adults were to attribute negative behaviour: dispositional or situational? -attributions made of function of age -striking difference in two older groups -data suggests cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error -American: more likely to make FAE -Chinese: less likely to make FAE -FAE is diminished in collectivist societies where there is less focus in relationships and roles within society -American Olympic gold medal winnersmore likely to attribute gold winning performance to their determination and talent -Japanese Olympic gold medal winnermore likely to attribute gold winning performance to the success of the coaching team and organization Subtopic: Self-Serving Bias -tendency to perceive yourself favourably -Above Average Effect: identify dispositional causes for successes, but situational causes for failures, giving an exaggerated view of abilities -positive events: actors will select dis
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