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PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)

Influence of Others 1.docx

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Joe Kim

Influence of Others 1 (Module) Module: Presence of Others Subtopic: Norman Triplett -Triplett hypothesized that the mere presence of others was an important variable in the performance of the actor -Co-actor: another individual performing the same task -Audience: a group of people watching an individual perform a task -Social Facilitation: the increased performance that occurs in the presence of co-actors or an audience Subtopic: A Complication -Zajonc suggested that the important factor to consider is that the presence of others increases arousal -how heightened arousal affects performance depends on task at hand -for simple tasks for which you are an expert or well-practised, performance is enhanced -for complex tasks, for which you are neither expert nor well practised, performance is hindered Subtopic: Zajonc’s Resolution -people completing simple puzzles or people well prepared for an event will perform better because the task has become relatively simple -a difficult puzzle or unpracticed activity will become more complex and the actor will perform worse in the presence of others -ex: being well prepared allows you to use the audience’s energy rather than feel anxiety and be nervous -if unprepared and lack confidence, pressure will tend to make you perform worse -ex: writing an exam when not prepared will lead to worse performance in the presence of others Module: Social Learning Theory Subtopic: Social Learning Theory -Social Learning Theory: you learn appropriate behaviours by modeling and imitating the behaviours of others (Albert Bandura) -social learning theory can be differentiated from basic conditioning because the behaviours you learn from others do not always require explicit reinforcement to develop Subtopic: The Bobo Doll -an inflatable doll with a weight at the bottom that picks the doll back up once knocked over -individuals aged 3 to 6 were offered a variety of toys to play with in a room with an adult who was a confederate of the study adult would model either aggressive or passive play with the toys in the room -aggressive play mode: punching, yelling at Bobo doll, hitting it with a mallet and other toys in room -after viewing adult, child went into a new play room with the bobo doll and behaviour was observed -children who viewed aggressive behaviour were more likely to subsequently display aggressive behaviour to the doll, punching, yelling and attacking the defenseless doll -aggressive behaviour was spontaneous, with no explicit reinforcement or encouragement (ran counter to the pure behaviourist ideas, which would suggest that learning of a behaviour would only occur with explicit reinforcement) -even with a real person, children still attacked with kicks, punches and toy hammers Module: Conformity Subtopic: Conformity -it’s difficult to stand alone, which is why people decide to conform Subtopic: Sherif and Norm Function -Autokinetic effect: we see a red light as moving when it is actually not when in a pitch black room; as your eyes scan the scene of a dot of light against a uniform dark background, you mistake the movement of the image on your retina as actual motion of the light -with each new day, the response of the subject increasingly converges with the two other individuals -after a few days of experimenting, your responses will gradually converge with the others in the experiment despite the difference starting points of the individual subjects (Norm Formation) -confederate’s response is set very high with the three subjects increasingly converge towards the confederate’s response Subtopic: Asch’s Stimuli -subjects were seated in a room with a group of other individuals and told they were going to complete a rather simples experiment -they would see one sample line and three comparison lines and they would have to identify which of the comparison lines matches the standard -only one person is the real subject and the rest are confederates; the subject always replies sixth, with most confederates responding first -37% of all responses conformed to a clearly incorrect answer, and 75% of subjects conformed to an incorrect answer on at least one trial Subtopic: Normative Function -Normative Function: the role of others in setting standards for our conduct based on a fear of rejection and ostracism (fashion trends and popular culture) -particularly evident in the standards of acceptable elevator etiquette Subtopic: Comparative Function -Comparative Function: the role of others in providing information about an ambiguous situation -comparative function of the group provides information about reality in an ambiguous situation (fire alarm: drill or real?) -subject conformed to the group answer primarily because he thought the others just might be right, and he doubted his own perceptions Subtopic: Conclusion -behaviour is greatly influences by both the normative and comparative functions because of social pressure and the fear of rejection and through the comparative function by providing group information in an uncertain situation Module: Group Dynamics Subtopic: Decision Making -what effect does a group have on decision making and consensus Subtopic: The Risky Shift -groups were more cautious than individuals -asked individuals to read a set of hypothetical situations and make risk assessments -individuals then came together into groups to come to a consensus -on average, the group decisions were riskier than the mean decision of the individuals before the group discussion -not every experiment produced a risky shift; in some cases the group’s decision was more cautious than the mean of the individual decisions -ex: Roger is a married man with 2 young children and a secure but low paying job. Roger
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