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PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)

Problem Solving.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Problem Solving & Intelligence Module: Introduction Subtopic: Operational Definition of Intelligence -Intelligence: the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information, and cope with the demands of daily living -intelligence involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from experience and adapt Module: Problem Solving Subtopic: Deductive and Inductive Reasoning -Deductive: IdeaConclusion -Inductive: FactIdea - the Arch of Knowledge involves creating theories and adapting those theories through experimentation Subtopic: Insight Problems -problems that require you to think outside the box -Functioning Fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects Module: A History of Intelligence Testing Subtopic: The Qualities of a Test -Reliability: a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times -repeated test produces consistent results -Validity: a valid test measure only the trait is supposed to be measuring Subtopic: Francis Galton -recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by reaction time; faster time, more intelligent Subtopic: Stanford-Binet Intelligent Test -produced test that included 30 short tasks related to everyday life (name parts of body, compare lengths and weights, name objects in a picture and define words); all of these tasks required reasoning -this test was adjusted for different ages Subtopic: Charles Spearman & “G” -people who performed well on classical intelligence tests performed well on all kinds of tasks— vocabulary, math, special abilities and so on -one generalized intelligence ‘G’ -only people with minimum ‘G’ should be allowed to vote and only individuals with a base ‘G’ level should be allowed to reproduce Subtopic: Multiple Intelligences -Howard Gardner proposed a multiple intelligence test -8 different intelligences: verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic -each intelligence is independent of others Module: Human Intelligence Subtopic: The Weschler Scales -Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) -scales are standardized to produce an intelligence quotient for each individual -ID is based on result of large samples of people who have taken the test -IQ is relative to the performance of the rest of the population Subtopic: Genetic and Environmental Contribut
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