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PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)

Psychopathology 1.docx

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Joe Kim

Psychopathology 1 (Module) Module: What is Abnormality? Subtopic: The Four D’s -deviance, distress, dysfunction, danger Subtopic: Deviance -having thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that fall far outside of the standards of what others are doing; considers those who fall well above and well below standard of the group -people with psychological disorders deviate in some way from the typical behaviours of others Subtopic: Distress -intense negative feelings due to their behaviour, such as anxiety, sadness, or despair -psychological disorders often, but not always, cause strong feelings of distress Subtopic: Dysfunction -behaviour tends to interfere with the person’s ability to function properly in their daily lives -psychological disorders often cause dysfunction in completing everyday tasks, but this dysfunction may also be voluntary Subtopic: Danger -danger to oneself or another; engages in risky behaviours that lead to drug addiction or a person who engages in violence towards others -psychological disorders often, but not always, cause a person to place themselves or others in danger Module: Classifying Disorders Subtopic: The DSM (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) -the DSM provides standardized criteria to aid in the diagnosis of psychological disorders -categorizes and describes mental disorders so that clinicians will have a common set of criteria for applying a diagnostic label to the symptoms of their patients -allows researchers to talk to each other about mental disorders using a common language Subtopic: Diagnostic Criteria -1. Disordered behaviour must originate from within the person, not as a reaction to external factors -2. Disordered behaviour must be involuntary (unable to control symptoms) Subtopic: Categories in the DSM -The Axes: Axis l: Clinical Syndromes Axis ll: Developmental Disorders & Personality Disorders Axis lll: Physical Disorders Axis lV: Severity of Psychosocial Stressors Axis V: Highest Level of Functioning Subtopic: Models of Psychopathology -the DSM does not provide treatment plans for disorders Subtopic: Biological Models -psychological disorders may be due to malfunction in brain activity -also known as the medical or disease model -brain may malfunction because it is physically damaged, or because there is abnormal activity of chemicals in the brain known as neurotransmitters -usually points to genetics, nutrition, disease and stress to explain brain malfunctioning -advocates use of drug therapy to treat disorder; in extreme cases, treatment may also include electroconvulsive shock to brain or surgery Subtopic: Psychodynamic Model -psychological disorders may be due to mental conflict of the mind -may be due to unresolved childhood issues -psychological malfunction (mind and processes) -usually attributed to maladaptive attempts to deal with strong, unconscious conflicts stemmed from unresolved childhood issues -no physical therapy such as drug treatment; only psychological therapy can help the disorder by helping patients understand themselves in order to better cope with their life stressors Subtopic: Behaviourist Model -views psychological disorders as external, overt behaviour rather than an internal malfunction -disordered behaviours and emotions are not symptoms of anything inside the person, rather, they are the problem themselves -argue that disordered behaviours are established through classical and instrumental conditioning -contingencies, rewards and punishments received for our actions influence our behaviours -classical conditioning can be used quite successfully to treat phobias Subtopic: Cognitive Model -psychological disorders may be due to maladaptive, negative interpretations of life events -suggest that mental disorder result from maladaptive or inappropriate ways of selecting and interpreting information from the environment -we are anxious or depressed not because of what is happening around us, but rather because of the way we interpret those events -cognitive therapy focuses on positive interpretations of situations -behaviour therapy focuses on seeking out positive situations and actions; cognitive-behavioural therapies (CBT) Module: Mood Disorders Subtopic: Characterizing Mood Disorders -disturbances in emotion, which includes both the depressed mood of depression and the elevated mood of mania -two main types of depressed mood disorders: Unipolar depression and Bipolar depression Subtopic: Unipolar(Major) Depression -depression can be present in a less severe form and not every symptom needs to be present in order to receive a diagnosis -episodes of major depression are recurrent, but can last months if untreated -between episodes, a person usually returns to normal functioning -suicide risk, harmful effects to a person’s social well-being and physical health -symptoms: stay in bed all day, not physical active, little appetite, chronic headaches and muscle soreness, slow movement, hard time focusing on task at hand and constant negative thoughts Subtopic: Dysthymia -persistent moderate levels of depression (mildly depressed all of the time) -rarely return to normal functioning Subtopic: Bipolar Disorder -alternate between severe depression and mania -during mania, person experiences heightened self-esteem, activity, and energy and sleep very little -may feel that thoughts are racing ahead of ability to deal with them -participates in potentially risky behaviour such as sexual promiscuity, high-risk business investments and unrestrained buying sprees; may become angry at those in the way of his goals Subtopic: Causes of Depression -Biolog
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