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Research Methods 1.docx

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Joe Kim

Research Methods 1 7 Steps 1. Construct a theory - general set of ideas about how the world works 2. Generate hypothesis - testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about the relationship between variables 3. Choose research method - the way in which the hypothesis will be tested 4. Collect data - taking measurements of the outcomes of the test 5. Analyze data - understand the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables 6. Report the findings - publish articles in scholarly journals 7. Revise existing theories - to include new information into our understanding of the world * minimize bias, conflicts or oversights * every so often there is a dramatic change called a paradigm shift, a change from one way of thinking to another (a revolution, transformation) Definitions Anecdotal Evidence - evidence gathered from others or self experience * single experience might not be representative * personal experience might not represent others * cannot be sure that result is due to energy drinks alone Experiment - scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another - in an experiment the scientist manipulates the independent variable and observes the effect that manipulation has on the dependent variable Experimental Groups An experimental group is the group in a scientific experiment where the experimental procedure is performed. This group is exposed to the independent variable being tested and the changes observed and recorded. Control Groups - must find a group of “guinea pigs” with comparable similarities therefore it will be easier to tell if the dependent variable is reliable - A control group is a group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. This isolates the independent variable's effects on the experiment and can help rule out alternate explanations of the experimental results. Subject Designs Practice Effect - improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced Participant Designs - one way to guarantee that the experimental and control groups are as similar as possible before an experiment is to use a within-subjects experimental design - Within-Subjects Design: manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the
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