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Instrumental Conditioning 2.docx

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Joe Kim

Psychology Instrumental Conditioning 2 The Discriminative Stimulus  it is important to learn the contingency between a response and reinforcement, but also when that contingency is valid  the Discriminative Stimulus (SD) is the variable before the response and reinforcement that indicates that a contingency will occur (SD ---> response ---> reinforcement)  The Sδ is the variable before the response and reinforcement that indicates that a contingency will not occur (Sδ ---> response --X--> reinforcement)  ex. child gets rewarded w/ a dessert if he eats his vegetables. (SD is the environment; his parents house/ Sδ would be his grandparents house, where this contingency would not happen) Generalization  ex. Sarah learned a contingency between polite behaviour and reward. Her parents=SD. She will be polite with other authoritative figures around but not as much, and her politeness will decrease with different kinds of people around her Extinction  ex. Sarah's parents don't pay enough attention to Sarah's polite behaviour, this might lead to extinction of the contingency Discrimination  ex. the authority figures Sarah usually is polite around begin to not notice her polite behaviour, this might lead to Sarah restricting her polite behaviour to her parents (original SD)  In a lab, experimenters can manipulate variables: SD, Sδ, and presentation of reinforcers. This leads to better discrimination  Pigeon example: food released when there is a red light (SD), food not released when there is a yellow light (Sδ)  CS is paired up w/ a US, and illicit an immediate response reflexively (automatic)  SD does not illicit a response but rather sets the occasion for a response to occur Schedule of Reinforcement o Continuous vs. Partial reinforcement → in the real world, continuous reinforcements are rare; not all good deeds are rewarded and not all bad deeds result in punishment o Ratio vs. Interval → Ratio response: based on the number of responses made by a subject, which determines when the reinforcement
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