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PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)


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Joe Kim

Psychology Online Module – Memory Nov. 6, 2012 Intro to Memory - store and retrieve info Memory Metaphors - video-camera  accurately rpreserves images and audio - filing cabinet  create files stored in an organized system to be accessed later - comuper specialized components for handling memories for diff times and situations - common: assumes we store info in original undistorted form. And simple as accessing a previously stored item kept in a specific place  memory is subject to bias Basics - 3 questions o memory acquisition (what gets stored) o memory storage( how and where it is stored) o memory retrieval (how memory is returned to consciousness) - one memory acts as a cue to trigger another memory - Hermann Ebbinghaus o Memory  a serial learning task o Memorized word lists, previous word acts as cue for next word  testing hypotheses  encoding phase o subject learns list of words/symbols  retrieval o tested for what the rmbr from encoding phase  recall test o randomly generate list of what they rmbr  recognition test o shown several items and asked if item is new or old  used nonsense words to minimize influence of prior experiences o how long can memories be maintained  ability to recall was highest immediately after learning. Decreased over time  ‘forgetting curve’ ( decreasing exponentially) Multi-store model - proposed by Atkinson and Shiffron in 1968 - memories composed of long & short term system o stimuli first in short term memory (available for online tasks but not stored permamently) o can be transferred to long term memory (files saved into harddrive) by rehearsing - George Miller Psychology Online Module – Memory Nov. 6, 2012 o Short-term memory capacity: Ppl can rmbr about 7+/- 2 o Ppl can chunk info into meaningful packets  pack more info into a single chunk Memory Experiments - Serial Position curve o o Items early in list are better memorized Primacy effect  First to enter short term memory therefore the most opportunity to be rehearsed  Improving primacy  More time to encode each item  longer time to rehearse o Last couple of items are well memorized  Recency Effect  Last 7 items are in short-term memory  Diminishing recency  Disruption after encoding ( perform a distracting task after seeing the list)  takes space in short-term
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