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11. Categories and Concepts.docx

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Categories & Concepts Categorization Intro  Helps you decide your best course of action in situations  Ability to quickly categorize incoming stimuli to that of the ideas in the situation o Major assignment worth a good chuck of the grade  lets get started  Constantly categorizing your experiences to guide your decision making o Wake up with headache  place situation under ‘hangover’  know you should take advil Functions of Categorization Why Categorize?  Classification  allows you to treat objects that appear differently as belonging together o Different colored apples  all apples  Understanding  categorize a scene and what is happening in that situation  Predicting  categorizing your current experience and comparing it to similar experiences in memory, you can make prediction about your current situation o Dog in front of you  wagged tail = happy  Communication  words refer to some type of category or concept, and using the category name allows for efficient communication The Illusion of the Expert  Feeling that something must be simple because you are so good at it is Rules Dr. Lee Brooks  simple categories  susceptible to the illusion of the expert  easy for us  must have a simple rule  complex categories  number of people who can identify a simple categorization rule decreases o difficult to devise simple rules to define there more abstract categories When Rules Aren’t Enough  bachelor  unmarried male o pope and 6-month baby --> meet technical criteria but not out typical image of a bachelor  when asked to define rules, you may find it difficult to properly include and exclude items for category membership, yet when given a test stimulus, you can effortlessly decide membership  humans have internal representation of categories that is independent of the rules we try to define Prototype Theories Prototypes  categorize objects by comparing them to an internal representation od the category called prototype  prototypes  the average, or ‘bet’ member of a category o formed through experience and can be very
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