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10. Problem Solving.docx

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Problem Solving & Intelligence Introduction Operational Definition of Intelligence  Intelligence: the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important info, and cope with the demands of daily living  Intelligence involves cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from experience and adapt  Steinberg o Combines these 2 viewpoints into the definition Problem Solving  Interpreting a social issue, to finding a solution to a difficult math problem, you are a walking marvel of problem solving ingenuity Deductive & Inductive Reasoning  Deductive reasoning: you come to a concrete conclusion based on a general idea  Inductive reasoning: you generate a general idea given some concrete information Insight Problems  Special category of problems that are designed to test your ability to “think outside the box”  Functional Fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects A History of Intelligence Testing The Qualities of a Test  Reliability: a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times o Intelligence is a static, internal quality  Validity: measure only the trait it is supposed to be measuring Francis Galton  Formally quantify intelligence in an unbiased manner  Recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by their reaction times  Equated faster reaction times with higher intelligence  Unbiased and reliable measure Stanford-Binet Intelligence  Develop a tool that would help identify public school children who needed special education  Tasks related to everyday life: name parts of the body, compare lengths/widths, name objects, define words  Different for different age groups Charles Spearman & ‘G’  Believed single type of intelligence  Most people who performed well on classical intelligence tasks performed well on all kinds of tasks o Vocab, math, special abilities,…  One generalized intelligence  ‘g’ o Advocate that only individuals with a minimum level of ‘g’ should be allowed to vote & reproduce Multiple Intelligences  Howard Gardner o Different types of intelligence  Verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinsethic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic o Each type of intelligence is independent from the others Human Intelligence Weshler Scales  Modeled on Binet’s scale  WAIS/WISC  intelligence scale for adults/children  Standardized to produce intelligence quotient for each individual  IQ scoring is based on the results of large sampled of individuals who have taken this test  relative to the performance of the rest of the population Genetic & Environmental Contributions  Does a person’s intelligence result from genes or their environment? o False dichotomy between Nature vs. Nurture  Do the individual differences in human IQ result more from genetic or environmental differences? o Correlation studies o Twin study  identical stro
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