Class Notes (836,562)
Canada (509,854)
Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)

02- Research Methods I & II.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Joe Kim

Research Methods I Introduction to Scientific Research The Scientific Method  The goal of any scientist is to discover new information about the way the world works.  Psychologists collect data to test hypotheses that help us understand human thought and behaviour.  The scientific method provides a seven-step “recipe” for how to collect and analyze information while trying to minimize biases, conflicts, or oversights.  Scientists begin by studying the existing collection of information about the world, such as previous work published by other scientists. Revise Theories Report Analyze Findings Data Collect Research Data Hypothesis Method Theory  Theory  General set of ideas about the way the world works.  Hypothesis  Testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about he relationship between variables.  Research Method  The way in which the hypothesis will be tested.  Collect Data  Taking measurements of the outcomes.  Analyze Data  Understand the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables.  Report Findings  Publish in scholarly journals.  Revise Theories  To include new information into our understanding of the world.  Every so often, there is a particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking called a paradigm shift.  Because science and research are dynamic processes, theories are continually being revised to account for new information. Conducting an Experiment Testing A Hypothesis  A hypothesis makes a testable prediction.  You may initially look for anecdotal evidence to support or refute the hypothesis.  Anecdotal evidence  evidence gathered from others or self experience.  Single experience might not be representative of the general result that would occur if you tested the hypothesis multiple times.  Personal experience might not represent others. We all experience things differently and react in different ways.  Scientists often use the experiment to measure the effect of one variable on another.  Experiment  scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another.  Independent variable  variable manipulated by scientist.  Dependent variable  variable being observed. Control Groups Using Control Groups  A well-designed control group is a critical aspect.  An experiment contains 2 groups of participants: o Experimental Group  will receive the manipulation of the independent variable. o Control Group  will NOT receive manipulation.  We can then compare the dependent variable measure for both groups.  Participants in the experimental and control groups should be as similar as possible, differing only in the independent variable. Within Subjects Design  One way to guarantee the experimental and control groups are as similar as possible.  This technique tests the same subject repeatedly while the independent variable is manipulated.  This design minimizes the effect of subject differences on the dependent measure (external variables).  Problems: Because the same participant needs to be tested repeatedly, it can be time consuming and costly. Also, the measure we are using or the subject himself may change.  Practice effect  improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced. Between Subjects Design  One group of subjects receive experimental manipulation.  One groups acts as a control group.  It’s important for those individuals being compared in a between subjects design to be as similar as possible in every way except our manipulation of the independent variable.  A systematic difference between the participants other than the independent variable is a confounding variable. Sampling Selecting Subjects  You have to be careful how you select participants for the experiment if you want to eliminate confounding variables.  The general group of people we are trying to learn about is called the population, while the selected members of the population that we actually collect data from is called the sample.  The sample must accurately reflect the population itself so that the results of the experiment can be generalized.  Random Sample: o Choosing a sample at random from the entire population. o This reduces the chance that our selections might be biased towards a specific group.  Random Assortment: o Assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the groups of subjects. Conducting an Experiment Subject Biases  The placebo effect cannot be completely explained using modern psychology.  The placebo effect occurs when an individual exhibits a response to treatment that, in reality, has no related therapeutic effect.  This effect can be demonstrated by some cases where patients have shown remarkable recovery from illness when given drugs that were presented as “miracle cures”, even when these drugs were known to have no effect.  We must always consider the placebo effect when designing any experiment where participants might know in advance the expected result of the experimental manipulation.  The placebo effect is a form of participant bias, which can intentionally, or unintentionally, influence the results of the experiment.  Solution: Give the control group a mock treatment.  If the participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, the experiment is said to be blind. Experimenter Biases  It is also possible that a researcher may try to influence the results of an experiment, intentionally or unintentionally.  As experimenters know the hypothesis that they are attempting to test, it is possible that experimenters may promote the result they hope to achieve.  We can reduce the experimenter bias if the experimenter hims
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1X03

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.