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Instrumental Conditioning Mod Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Instrumental Conditioning 1 - A cat was placed inside a box, with food outside that provided motivation for the hungry cat to escape - Thorndike predicted that on trials following the discovery of the correct solution, the cat would escape immediately when placed in the same puzzle box o Long escape times during initial trials would be followed by a dramatic step down in time to escape later trials - Instead the cat’s frequency of random behaivour that didn’t involve pulling the rope would gradually decrease over time, leaving only the correct target behaviour - Thorndike hypothesized stamping in and stamping out process - Reinforcer –any stimulus presented after a response, changing the rate of that response - 4 types of instrumental conditioning – presenting or removing positive reinforce, and presenting or removing negative reinforce Presentation of a positive reinforcer following a response is REWARD training, INCREASING behaviour Presentation of a negative reinforcer following a response is PUNISHMENT training DECREASING behaviour - This type of reinforcement can cause a child for example to view his parents as authority figures and symbols of pain, making the contingency Omission training involves removing a positive reinforce following a response which leads to a DECREASING in the behaviour being reinforced e.g timeouts Escape training when a response is followed by the removal of a negative reinforce -something undesirable is happening and the only way to remove it, is to demonstrate a certain response - All types of these conditioning is only effective WHEN the presention of the consequence is given directly after the response Autoshaping – behaivours that are learned without explicit training guided by the researcher e.g. simply placing a pigeon in the cage and it will learn the contingency between the keyhole Shaping Involves responses too complex for a subject to discover on its own Shaping by successive approximation  breaking down the complex response into successive components that could be reinforced with reward training (presentation of a positive reinforcement following a response) ND 2 WEB MODULE Discriminative Stimulus Only certain response can get rewards, and respo
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