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Joe Kim

Psych 1X03 Week Two Notes 12/6/2011 12:18:00 PM The Scientific Method - Has a seven step method that tries to eliminate biased opinions and conflicts. - The formal way of asking and answering questions about human behaviour to get the most accurate information possible and sidestep the inaccuracy of our common sense beliefs and assumptions. The Seven Steps 1) Construct a theory  A general set of ideas about the way the world works. 2) Generate hypothesis  Testable statement guided by theories that make a prediction about the relationship between variables. 3) Choose research method  The way in which the hypothesis will be tested. 4) Collect data  Taking measurements of the outcomes of the test. 5) Analyze data  Understand the data and discover trends or relationships between variables. 6) Report the findings  Publish articles in scholarly journals. 7) Revise existing theories  To include new information into our understanding of the world. Paradigm Shift  A dramatic change in our way of thinking.  Different way of looking at things. A set of assumptions and ideas about what kind of research questions can be asked and how they can be answered.  Example: in 1543 thinking the world was not the center of the world. Anecdotal Evidence  Evidence gathered from others or self experience. Experiment  Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another. Experimental Group  Will receive the manipulation of the independent variable during the experiment. Control Group  Will not receive any manipulation of the independent variable. Independent Variable  Variable manipulated by the scientist. Dependent Variable  Variable being observed by the scientist. Within-Subjects Design  Manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure.  Problems include: may be costly and time consuming, the subject may also change in important ways. Practice Effect  Improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced. Between Subjects Experiment  One group of subjects receive experimental manipulation, one group acts as the control group. Random Sampling  Choosing subjects from a population at random.  This reduces the chance of bias’ towards a specific group. Random Assortment  Assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the groups of subjects. Confounding Variable  A variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results. Placebo Effect  Effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect. Participant Bias  When a participant’s actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experiment. Blinding  When participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which treatment they are receiving. Double-Blind Studies  Experiments in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which group each participant belong to. Experimenter Bias  Actions made by the experimenter, unintentionally or deliberately, to promote the result they hope to achieve. Descriptive Statistics  Present information about data at a glance to give us an overall idea. Histogram  Type of graph used to report the number of times groups of values appear in a data set. Frequency Distribution  Type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequent values appear in the data set. Normal Distrib
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