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Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)


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Joe Kim

Classical Conditioning 9/25/2011 10:50:00 AM Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning)  Learning of a contingency between a particular signal and a later event that are paired in time/space.  The presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. US, UR, CS, & CR  Unconditional Stimulus o Any stimulus or event that occurs naturally prior to learning. o Example: Eating.  Unconditional Response o The response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus; this occurs naturally. o Example: When you eat, you salivate.  Conditioned Stimulus o Previously neutral; paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency. o Typically appears before the US. o Example: When you sound a horn, before eating food.  Conditioned Response o The response that occurs once the contingency between the CS and US has been learned. o Often the CR and UR are similar. o Example: Now when you hear a horn, you salivate even when food isn’t present. Acquisition  Is the process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned.  The process of acquisition is a negatively accelerating curve.  During each additional trial there is some learning, but the earlier trials is when contingencies are learnt the most.  Neophobia o Rats don’t eat unfamiliar foods and when they do they only eat a small amount to see if it makes them sick or not. Extinction  The loss of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the unconditional stimulus.  The original learned association is not unlearned, more so it promotes a learned inhibitory response. Stimulus Generalization  Classical conditioning of learned responses to a variety of different stimuli.  Example: When you get bitten by a black Doberman dog, you develop a fear of all dogs. Generalization Gradient  A graph that deals with two variables, usually a mountain shape.  Example: the black Doberman dog will elicit the most amount of fear, but as the dogs look/sound different from the black Doberman they will elicit a smaller amount of fear. Discriminate Stimuli  Restricts the range of the CS’s; dip on one side of the curve. CS+ Vs. CS-  CS+ predicts the presence of the US.  CS- predicts the absences of the US.  When they are presented together, they show a intermediate fear response. Phobia  Intense and persistent fear of a stimulus.  Two methods used to treat phobias: o Systematic Desensitization  Start to something similar and move closer to the actual phobia.  This method is more accessible to most patients. o Implosive Therapy  When you directly show the person the phobia.  Example: When a person with a fear a germs is asked to sit with their hands covered in dirt. Homeostasis and Compensatory Response  Compensatory Response o A process that counteracts a challenge to homeostasis.  Drug Tolerance o The drug effects are lesser the more you do it. o In order for tolerance to occur, though, the association between environment and drug administration needs to be consistent.  Withdrawal o When you stop taking a drug, and if you are in the same environment this can cause you to want the drug. o You want the drug because you are feeling the body’s natural defense against the drug and wish to “go back to normal” by taking the drug once again.  Drug Environment o Can trigger the want for drugs. o Example: Vietnam heroine soldiers developed a heroine addiction in the jungles of Vietnam. However when they came back home they stopped using heroine because they weren’t in their familiar environment. o Taking a drug in a new environment can change the probability of the negative effects on
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