Psych Week Four Instrumental Conditioning 10/2/2011 2:25:00 PM
Training between voluntary behaviours and their consequences
Measured time it took a cat to learn to open a door by pulling on a
The frequency of random behaviour’s decreased over time.
Law Of Effect
Behaviour with positive consequences are stamped in (performed
for frequently); behaviours with negative consequences are
Reward Training (Positive Reinforcement)
o Presentation of a positive reinforcer.
o Example: When you wash your dishes, you get $1.
Punishment (Positive Punishment)
o Presentation of a negative reinforcer.
o Example: When you make a mess you get hit.
Omission Training (Negative Punishment)
o Removal of a positive reinforcer.
o Example: Children getting a time out.
Escape Training (Negative Reinforcement)
o Removal of a negative reinforcer.
o Example: Rats normally receive electric shocks when pressing
a lever, when the rats stop pushing the lever they are using
The response rate for a given behaviour
Shaping (B.F. Skinner)
Through a series of reward training trails a complex behaviour can
be organized into smaller steps, which will then build up to the full
Experimenter involvement is very important.
Learning the contingency naturally.
Experimenter involvement is not so important.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Making the behaviour occur, sets the occasion for a response.
Signals when a contingency between a particular response and
reinforcement is “on”.
Making the behaviour not occur.