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Psychology (5,220)
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Joe Kim (989)


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Joe Kim

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Personality 11/2/2011 5:30:00 PM Personality - Isn‟t real; it has no physical existence. It is an idea, an abstract concept that we use because it seems to capture something important about our experiences, they help us organize and understand experiences. - Hypothetical constructs are abstract concepts. - The Hippocrates approach to personality was that he believed in four “humours”: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Personality was based on the balance of these four humours. Example: Melan (for black) and cholic (for bile) meant that someone of this personality types is often sad and wistful. Psychodynamic Approach SIGMUND FREUD - Sees personality as generated by internal psychic structures in your mind, and the way they interact with each other, determine how we feel and behave. Many of these structures are unconscious. - Freud believes that the way you go through stages in your life as a child, will ultimately have an impact on your adulthood. Tripartite Model - Made up of the Id, Ego and Superego. These three levels is the major motivating forces in humans. - Id seeks pleasure and avoids pain. This is known as the Pleasure Principle. It is the source of your basic instincts and your motivational energy (libido). The four main things the Id wants is food, air, water and sex. The Id is selfish and impatient. The Id is completely in the unconscious. - Superego is focused on holding moral principles. The superego comes into play at around age 5 and 6. Your conscious stems from your superego. The Superego develops from our same sex parents morals and standards. The Superego is mainly in the unconscious, but a small portion is in the preconscious (just beneath the surface of awareness) and conscious (of which we are aware). - Ego balances our the Superego and Id. It is aware of outside reality. The ego is split into all three stages (conscious, preconscious and unconscious) equally. Defense Mechanisms - Where the conscious ego is protected against anxiety. These mechanisms help keep unacceptable id impulses out of consciousness entirely or by disguising id impulses so that the conscious ego does not feel anxious about them. Repression - The simplest defense mechanism; the unconscious ego blocks id impulses from ever reaching consciousness. Keeping repressed impulses our of consciousness takes a lot of energy. Repressed impulses sometimes sneak into consciousness as slips of the tongue (Freudian Slips) or symbolically disguised as dream images. - Example: A child who is abused by a parent later has no recollection of the events, but has trouble forming relationships. Denial - When the conscious ego engages in the anxiety-producing behaviour, but the unconscious ego immediately prevents any memory of the behaviour from getting back into consciousness. So even though the ego has done something immoral, it feels no anxiety since it has no memory of the behaviour at all. The difference between denial and repression is that denial impulses start in the conscious and is blocked out where in repression impulses start in the unconscious and never becomes conscious. - Example: when your friend calls you a bad name, there unconscious ego prevents the memory from getting back into consciousness so that the friend actually believes they didn‟t do anything. Rationalization - When the conscious ego had done something immoral so the unconscious ego floods consciousness with plausible, non-threatening reasons for the behaviour. Anxiety isn‟t reached because the conscious ego believes that it has engaged in the behaviour for a perfectly harmless reason. - Example: when a man kills someone, he doesn‟t believe he actually did, rather he believes that he killed the person out of self defense. Projection - When our anxiety producing thoughts/impulses are attributed to someone else, maybe the original target of the impulse. - Example: when we don‟t like someone, we believe we don‟t like them because they don‟t like us. Reaction formation - When the conscious ego is protected from anxiety by being filled with ideas and feelings that are opposite to the actual impulse. - Example: when a little boy likes a little girl, but the girl doesn‟t like him back then the boy is automatically mean to the little girl. Displacement - When the unconscious ego redirects the forbidden impulse away from its original target to a consciously acceptable target, so that the conscious ego doesn‟t feel any anxiety. Sublimation a special type of displacement, in which sexual or aggressive impulses are displaces to objects or activities that are socially acceptable; this is due to our sublimated libido (Id). - Example: when a man wins the lottery, he kisses the person next to him rather than yelling and screaming. Freud‟s Five Psychosexual Stages - Covers birth to the final stage of puberty. During each stage the child‟s pleasure is obtained primarily from a single erogenous. Oral Stage - Covered from birth to one year. The child discovers the pleasures of sucking and swallowing and later biting and chewing. Anal Stage - Covered from age one to three. The child gets pleasure from oral activities but the primary focus of gratification is the anal area. The child gets most pleasure from giving up feces through bowel movements. When the child gets potty-trained, the child discovers the pleasures of holding onto feces. Phallic Stage - Covered from age 3 to 6. This is the most important stage of psychosexual development. The child discovers the pleasures of stimulating the phallic area (aka your genitals).  During this stage boys go through the Oedipus complex. This is when the ego incest‟s sexual libido to his mother, and now wants to possess his Mother for himself. The boy then feels competition with his dad, so the boy wants to get rid of his dad. But since the dad is bigger and stronger the boy won‟t do anything in fear of his dad will retaliate against him by castrating him which leads to intense castration anxiety. This anxiety is observed when the boy realizes that girls do not have penises. To resolve this dilemma the boy identifies with his father. This process is called identification, during this process the father‟s beliefs and values form the superego.  During this stage the girls go through the Electra complex. The girl wants the mother all to herself but gets freaked out when she realizes that some people have penises, and she does not. The girl then realizes that the reason she lost her penis. The girl then wants to regain her penis (penis envy), this then directs her sexual desires towards her Dad. Afraid of the mother will retaliate, she then identifies with the mother and therefore her superego is formed from the mother‟s own beliefs and values. - Because of the intense anxiety that these Complexes exhibit, the memories of the child‟s sexual and aggressive impulses are blocked through repression. Latency Stage - Begins at age 6 and goes until puberty. Sexual desire is channeled into behaviours that are not overtly sexual. Genital Stage - Begins at puberty and lasts for the rest of our lives. The surge of hormones releases our sexual desires. The direction of our sexual interests and urges takes depend on how we passed through the pervious stages. Fixation - When a sexual desire is attached to a specific erogenous zone at each stage ; some excess libido can be left behind at a specific stage. - We enter adulthood with libido distributed between several erogenous zones. - If we are fixated at the oral stage, our adult sexuality will be more heavily oral than usual. This may cause the individual to experience libido through eating, smoking or nail biting. - If we fixed at the anal stage, there are two sorts of activities. Children who have fixated on pleasure from giving up feces, may as adults become messy and disorganized, experiencing pleasure from giving things to others; this is called anal explusive. Those who fixated on pleasure from holding onto feces may become overly neat and orderly, but stingy, stubborn
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