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Joe Kim (989)

Psych1X03Week11(Forming Impressions).docx

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Joe Kim

Forming Impressions 11/22/2011 10:14:00 PM Correspondent Inference Theory - You actively analyze a person’s behaviour to make inferences based on three variables: 1) Degree of Choice o Understands why a person is behaving in a particular way, it helps to know if he chose to act in the observed behaviour in question. 2) Expectation o Consider that uncommon behvaiour gives us a lot more information than common behaviour. If someone behaves in a way typical to what you would expect you do not have any reason to infer an underlying cause to their behaviour. 3) The Intended Consequences o To see if the individual is exhibiting a particular behaviour is motivated by a particular goal. Covariation Theory - Predicts how you determine if a given behaviour is due to an individual’s personal disposition OR the situation and circumstances. - Three variables are considered to determine if a behaviour is dispositional or situational: 1) Consistency o Does the person usually behave this way? If the answer is yes, then continue to seek an explanation. 2) Distinctiveness o Does the individual behave differently in different situations? Yes means that the behaviour is driven by the situation, where no means that the behaviour is driven by his disposition. 3) Consensus o Do others behave similarly in the situation? If the answer is yes, then it is due to the situation, and if the answer is no, then it is due to each individual’s particular disposition. Fundamental Attribution Error - The tendency to over-value dispositional factors for the observed behaviours of others while under-valuing situational factors. - You are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error when you determining the causes of the behaviour of others rather than your own behaviour. This is because you are more aware of your situational influences. Actor Observer Effect - You as the actor are better aware of the many situational factors contributing to your own behaviour; but when you observe others you only have the current situation at hand, so you assume the individual’s behaviour is representative of what would typically be observed. Cultural Differences Within the Fundamental Attribution Error - Compared to the Chinese, the American students and newspapers were more likely to make the fundamental attribution error. - Generally, the fundamental attribution error is diminished in collectivist societies where there is less focus on individual behaviour and ore focus on relationships and roles within society. - This founded that American Olympic gold medal winners are more likely to attribute their gold winning performance to their determination and talent, while Japanese gold medal winners are more likely to attribute their gold winning performance to the success of the coaching team and organization. Self-Serving Bias - Refers to your tendency to perceive yourself favourably. Above Average Effect - Causes you to identify dispositional causes for your successes, but situational causes for your failures. - Gives you an exaggerated view on your abilities. - Makes you believe that you are better than other people. Cognitive Heuristics - Social perceptions are shaped by similar heuristics because we have limited ability and formal training in analyzing behaviour, and limited attention to put towards this task. Representativeness Heuristic - You classify people by considering how well their behaviour fits with a certain prototype. Availability Heuristic - Use your experiences and memories to classify things. - Experiment done by Craig Fox found that when students listed more way to improve a course, they rated the course better than the students who listed only two improvements of a course. Relationships - Five things that make it more likely to be attracted to someone: 1) Proximity o You are more likely to be attracted to someone who you live with or work closely with. This has to deal not only with physical distance, but functional distance as well. o Likely to like those that you anticipate interaction with. 2) Familiarity o Mere exposure effect – describes your tendency to be more positive towards things that are familiar, even if you have
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