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Joe Kim (987)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Problem Solving and Intelligence Detailed Note.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psychology Lecture 8: Problem Solving and Intelligence  Definition of intelligence o The cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information and cope with demands of daily living Problem Solving  Deductive reasoning o You come to a concrete conclusion based on a general idea o Ex. If someone tells you it is going to rain, you determine that the ground will be wet  Inductive reasoning o You generate a general idea given some concrete information o Ex. You notice the ground is wet and you determined that it was raining  In science, we start with a general theory about the world and then use deductive reasoning to generate a specific, testable hypothesis about the data we expect to obtain  Then through experimentation, we collect data and use inductive reasoning to relate it to our general theory in some way A History of Intelligent Testing  Two important qualities of a test o Reliability  Measures the extent to which repeated testing produces consistent results  Avenue quizzes can be said to be reliable if the same student taking repeat versions of the test scores a consistently similar result o Validity  Measures the extent to which a test is actually measuring what the researcher claims to be measuring  Ex. In research on intelligence measurement, does a given test actually measure your intelligence or rather, your ability to answer certain questions or even your writing speed  Modern study of intelligence started with Francis Galton o He recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by their reaction time o He equated faster reaction time with higher intelligence o Unbiased and reliable measure  Charles Spearman o Firm believer in a single type of science o He observed that most people who performed well on classical intelligence tests also did well on other kinds of tasks o He reasoned that this was the case because there is one generalized science, which he named “g”  Howard Gardner o Proposed a multiple intelligence theory and intelligence test o He argued for eight different types of intelligence  Linguistic – verbal  Mathematic – logical  Rhythmic – musical  Spatial – visual  Kinaesthetic – body  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalistic o According to Gardner, each type of intelligence is independent of each other Human Intelligence  David Wechsler o Original intelligence test was modelled on the Binet scale, but has developed significantly o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) o These scales are standardized to produce an intelligence quotient for every individual o IQ scores surrounding the mean are assigned around a perfect normal distribution  Genetic and Environmental Contributions o Do the individual differences in human IQ result more from genetic or environmental differences? o Researchers can use correlation studies to answer this question o One approach was to use twin studies in which researchers compared identical twins (100% of their genes in common) to fraternal twins (50% genes in common) o Using this method, researchers found IQ measures between twins show a strong positive correlation (+ 0.80), which was significantly greater than the + 0.60 correlation found between fraternal twins o Difference suggests a role in genes in the development of intelligence o To better differentiate the roles of genes and environment in measures of intelligence, researchers can correlate the IQ’s of twins raised in different environments o Interestingly, in such studies, the mean correlation is still high, at + 0.73 o While this does suggest a strong role in genetics, there are limitations to what can be concluded o A researcher cannot possibly consider all the environmental similarities and differences between the homes the twins were raised in  Flynn Effect o Notes that the mean score for intelligence testing in the population has been steadily increasing since it was first measured o Mean IQ for a population is always 100, but the raw scores that corresponds to an IQ of 100 has been steadily on the rise o Documented by James Flynn o Flynn has argued that increased quality of schooling has played a large role in the increase o Another possible factor is the increased access to information and ideas through books, TVs and the internet o Others suggest that increased nutrition and health have played an important role Jean Piaget and Intelligence Development  Developed one of the most influential theories of intellectual development  Piaget’s fundamental idea was that children are active learners  By manipulating and exploring their environments, children incorporate new information into what they know  Schema o A mental framework for interpreting the world around us o Ex. If George frowns at you, you use your schemas to know that he is unhappy with you and you act accordingly o A child’s schemas are not fully developed and so a young child may ignore you if you look unhappy  Challenge is for the child to incorporate new information into their existing schemas  Piaget called this process assimilation o Incorporating new information into existing schemas  When new information is incompatible with an existing schema, the child must more drastically alter her schemas for the new information to make sense o A proce
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