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Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)
Lecture 5

PSYCH 1X03 Lecture 5: Problem Solving and Intelligence
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCH 1X03 Problem Solving and Intelligence Module Notes Intelligence: the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information and cope with the demands of daily living. Deductive Reasoning: occurs when a person works from ideas and general information to arrive at specific conclusions. • E.g. Every day, I leave for school in my car at 8AM. Every day, the drive to school takes 30 minutes and I arrive on time for my first class. Therefore, if I leave for school at 8AM today, I will be on time Inductive Reasoning: moving from specific facts and observations to broader generalizations and theo- ries. • E.g. Today I left for school at 8AM and I ar- rived on time for my first class. Therefore, every day that I leave the house at 8AM, I will arrive to school on time for my first class. These two types of reasoning are the heart of the scientific method. TheArch of Knowl- edge involves creating theories and adapting those theories through experimentation. Functional Fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects Important Qualities of a Test Reliability: a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times. Psychologists assume intelligence is a static internal quality, so reliability is very impor- tant for developing an intelligence test. Validity: a valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring. History of Intelligence Test – See Module Charles Spearman: Believed that there was one generalized intelligence named “g” Multiple Intelligences: a theory and test proposed by Howard Gardner. The multiple intel- ligences were linguistic (verbal), mathematical (logical), rhythmic (musical), spatial (vis- ual), kinesthetic (bodily), interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic. Two Modern Tests: WeschlerAdult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) • Produces Intelligence Quotient for each individual (IQ) • Mean score is 100 (fall in middle of standard deviation curve) ▯1 Problem Solving and Intelligence Module Notes PSYCH 1X03 • Specific performance is therefore relative to the IQ scores of the rest of the popu- lation The Flynn Effect: Raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932. Possible reasons in- clude increased quality of schooling and increased access to information and ideas through books, TV and the Internet, but no definite cause of this effect has been deter- mined or confirmed. Schema: a mental framework
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