Problem Solving and Intelligence Module Notes
Intelligence: the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well,
remember important information and cope with the demands of daily living.
Deductive Reasoning: occurs when a person works from ideas and general information
to arrive at specific conclusions.
• E.g. Every day, I leave for school in my car at 8AM. Every day, the drive to
school takes 30 minutes and I arrive on time for my first class. Therefore, if I
leave for school at 8AM today, I will be on
Inductive Reasoning: moving from specific facts
and observations to broader generalizations and theo-
• E.g. Today I left for school at 8AM and I ar-
rived on time for my first class. Therefore,
every day that I leave the house at 8AM, I
will arrive to school on time for my first
These two types of reasoning are the heart of the scientific method. TheArch of Knowl-
edge involves creating theories and adapting those theories through experimentation.
Functional Fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects
Important Qualities of a Test
Reliability: a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times.
Psychologists assume intelligence is a static internal quality, so reliability is very impor-
tant for developing an intelligence test.
Validity: a valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring.
History of Intelligence Test – See Module
Charles Spearman: Believed that there was one generalized intelligence named “g”
Multiple Intelligences: a theory and test proposed by Howard Gardner. The multiple intel-
ligences were linguistic (verbal), mathematical (logical), rhythmic (musical), spatial (vis-
ual), kinesthetic (bodily), interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic.
Two Modern Tests:
WeschlerAdult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
• Produces Intelligence Quotient for each individual (IQ)
• Mean score is 100 (fall in middle of standard deviation curve)
Problem Solving and Intelligence Module Notes PSYCH 1X03
• Specific performance is therefore relative to the IQ scores of the rest of the popu-
The Flynn Effect: Raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932. Possible reasons in-
clude increased quality of schooling and increased access to information and ideas
through books, TV and the Internet, but no definite cause of this effect has been deter-
mined or confirmed.
Schema: a mental framework