Class Notes (836,153)
Canada (509,662)
Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)

Chapter 3 - Instrumental Conditioning Video Lecture Psych 1X03

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Joe Kim

Video Lecture Psych 1X03 Chapter 3: Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning 1  Classical Conditioning – organisms learn the contingencies between biologically important stimuli and events; can occur in the absence of overt training – simply presenting together two biologically important stimuli leads to their association  Instrumental Conditioning – involves explicit training between voluntary behaviors and their consequences; learning contingency between behaviors and their consequences  Edward L Thorndike experiment o Cats in a puzzle box (small chamber with a door that could be opened by performing a specific behavior such as pulling a rope), outside the box was a small dish of food that provided motivation for the hungry cat to escape o Over several trials, the cat was placed in the puzzle box as Thorndike carefully observed their behaviors and recorded their escape time o At first, the hungry animal would engage in random behavior – it would happen upon the correct solution (pulling the string) o Prediction: The cat would escape immediately when placed in the same puzzle box, once it had discovered the solution the first time o Reality: Frequency of random behaviors gradually decreased over time – never a distinct “aha” moment o Rope pulling behavior – stamped in o Random behavior – stamped out  Law of Effect: behaviors with positive consequences are stamped in, those with negative consequences are stamped out Four Consequences  Behavioral responses are changed by both positive reinforcers and negative reinforcers, each of which can either be presented or removed  Reward Training – presentation of a positive reinforcer; behavior is likely to increase o Eg/ For every A grade Billy receives, he is given $5  Omission Training – Removal of a positive reinforcer; behavior is likely to decrease o Eg/ Time Out o Eg/ IF Billy fails a test, he doesn’t get any dessert that night  Punishment – presentation of a negative reinforcer; behavior is likely to decrease o Can be controversial, must consider ethics o Eg/ If Billy fails English, he will have to cut the grass every week in the summer  Escape Training – removal of a negative reinforcer; behavior is likely to increase o Eg/ Rat Cage – one side delivers an electric shock, shock can be avoided by staying on the other side of the cage o Eg/ When Billy gets a good report card, he doesn’t have to do his chores for a week  Punishment ≠ Omission  Instrumental conditioning proceeds best when the consequence immediately follows the response Contingencies  Classical Conditioning – the process of acquisition, in which an organism learns the contingency between a stimulus and a biologically important event  Instrumental Conditioning – the process of acquisition, which leads to learning the contingency between a response and its consequences o Researchers often measure the rate of responding to the new behavior  Using a cumulative recorder; long piece of paper flows through the machine at a constant rate as a pen draws a straight line – which each response made by the subject, the pen moves up a notch leading to a characteristic patter of acquisition  Flat horizontal line – indicates when the subject is not responding Video Lecture Psych 1X03  Upward slope – indicates when a response has been made  The pattern of responding depends on a number of factors including the subject, the complexity of the behavior and type of reinforcement used AutoShaping  AutoShaping – behaviors can be learned without explicit training guided by a researcher o Eg/ Pigeon, peck keyhole and sand falls down, eventually stop pecking keyhole  Not all behaviors can be AutoShaped  Rewards some behavior that night occur spontaneously Shaping  Complex behavior can be organized into smaller steps which gradually build up to the full response we hope to condition – each step can be reinforced through reward training o Eg/ Pigeon Ping-Pong; Peck ping pong table  peck stationary ball  peck moving ball  peck moving ball to across the table  Rewards successive steps towards a behavior that the one wouldn’t normally do Instrumental Conditioning 2 Generalization and Discrimination  Discriminative Stimulus – signals when a contingency between a particular response and reinforcement is “on” o Eg/ Child who is rewarded with a treat for eating his vegetables at home, but isn’t rewarded at his grandparents house Environment of his home – SD for the response of vegetable eating behavior, which is reinforced a with access to a dessert reward o Eg/ Pigeon pecks at keyhole and receives food Green light is on – indicates that food will be received  SD  S delta (δ)– a cue which indicates when the contingent relationship is not valid o Eg/ Environment of the grandparents home becomes an Sδ for he response of vegetable eating, child will learn that under these conditions, eating vegetables will not lead to a dessert reward o Eg/ Pigeon keyhole Green light off, clicking sound on  Sδ  SD Generalization Gradient – similar stimulus to the SD, the farther you get from the original stimulus, the less response o Eg/ Pigeon keyhole Bird learns to respond to green light with pecking the keyhole Bird will also peck with lights of similar wavelength to the original SD  Extinction o Eg/ Sarah’s parents reward Sarah with praise and attention when she is polite, but as her parents get busier, they are unable to pay as much attention to her – Sarah may stop responding with polite
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1X03

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.