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Joe Kim (987)

Chapter 6 - Psychological Disorders Video Lecture Psych 1X03

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Video Lecture Psych 1X03 Chapter 6: Psychological Disorders Psychopathology What is Abnormality?  The four D’s – used to define abnormality; used as guidelines, although exhibiting one or more of these characteristics do not necessarily label someone as having a psychological disorder o Deviance o Distress o Dysfunction o Danger  Deviance – refers to having thoughts, emotions and behaviors that fall far outside of the standards of what others are doing o People with psychological disorders deviate in some way from the typical behaviors o Includes those who fall both below and above the standard group  Distress – intense negative feelings due to their behavior, such as anxiety, sadness or despair o Psychological disorders often, but not always, cause strong feelings of distress o Exceptions; people who are free of distress who are not psychologically healthy  Antisocial personality – feel no remorse or distress when causing harm to other people  Bipolar patients in the manic phase – often feel extremely elated and larger than life; not distressed  Dysfunction – behavior tends to interfere with the persons ability to function properly in their daily lives o Psychological disorders often cause dysfunction in completing everyday tasks, but this dysfunction may also be voluntary o Defined as “maladaptive” because they prevent an individual from adapting well to their environment  Danger – risky behaviors; such as those that lead to drug addictions or violence towards others o Psychological disorders often, but not always, cause a person to place themselves or others in danger Classifying Disorders  DSM – Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel; clinicians turn to guidelines in the DSM in order to apply proper diagnosis  DSM has two main functions o Categorizes and describes mental disorders so that clinicians will have a common set of criteria for applying a diagnostic label to the symptoms of their patients o Allows researchers to talk to each other about mental disorder using a common language  DSM outlines two general criteria o Must be met before a clinician can make any diagnosis regarding mental health, regardless of the specific disorder in question 1. The disordered behavior must originate from within the person, rather than being a reaction to something in the environment  Eg/ Not disordered; behavior observed would be considered a normal response to an external factor – person who is crying uncontrollably because their family just died 2. Disordered behavior must be involuntary  Person suffering from the disorder is unable to control the symptoms that they experience  Eg/ Rules out someone who chooses to dress up in crazy clothes for a football game  Categories in the DSM Video Lecture Psych 1X03 o The DSM attempts to group together disorders that have similar sets of symptoms, with the assumption that similarities suggest a common cause and that they can be similarly treated o Criteria for diagnosis and groupings of disorders change as researchers discover new information – new version of the DSM will be released o The Axes  Axis I: Clinical Syndromes  Axis II: Developmental Disorders and Personality Disorders  Axis III: Physical Conditions  Axis IV: Severity of Psychosocial Stressors  Axis V: Highest Level of Functioning Models of Psychopathy  DSM only describes a pattern of symptoms; does not offer an explanation for the disorder, or provide treatment plans or methods  Models are used to explain the causes of the disorder and to help decide how to treat it  Functions of Models o Biological Model (also known as medical or disease model)  Assumes that a psychological disorder results from malfunction in the brain  Brain may malfunction because it is physically damaged, or because there is abnormal activity of chemicals in the brain known as neurotransmitters  Causes of disorder are physical; points to genetics, nutrition, disease and stress to explain brain malfunctions  Commonly advocates the use of drugs to treat the disorder  Treatment may include electroconvulsive shock or brain surgery o Psychodynamic Model  Pioneered by Freud  Believes that mental disorders are rooted in an internal psychological malfunction  The mind and its processes (not the physical brain) which is working improperly  Disorder is usually attributed to maladaptive attempts to deal with strong, unconscious conflicts  Freud believed that these conflicts stemmed from unresolved childhood issues  Treatment must focus on psychological therapy (such as psychoanalysis) to cope with underlying stressors; physical therapy will only temporarily alleviate symptoms o Behavioral Model  Psychological disorders are external, overt behavior rather than an internal malfunction  Not symptoms of anything inside the person; but behaviors and emotions are the problem  Disordered behaviors are established through classical and instrumental conditioning  Contingencies, rewards and punishments received for our actions influence our behavior  Eg/ Behaviours lead to sympathy and attention of others, or keep you out of anxiety producing situations  Treatment using maladaptive behaviours using principles from conditioning  Eg/ Classical conditioning can be used  Criticism  Can you really say that someone who hears and responds to voices in their head has learned to behave that way? Video Lecture Psych 1X03  Although behavioural treatment is often effective while inside the comfort of the therapists office, it doe not always transfer well to other environments  Treats people as simple reflexive beings that just react to their environment, rather than having the ability to plan, remember and predict things in their world o Cognitive Model  Suggests that mental disorder result from maladaptive or inappropriate ways of selecting and interpreting information from the environment  Eg/ Person who enjoys public speaking – chance to deliver an effective message vs. Person who is afraid of public speaking – chance to be negatively evaluated  Experience and learning play an important role in shaping maladaptive thinking  Cognitive therapies – designed to identify maladaptive thinking and to change it through positive experiences  Cognitive and behavioral approaches compliment each other – cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) are used  Cognitive therapy focuses on positive interpretations of situations  Behavior therapy focuses on seeking out positive situations and actions Mood Disorders  Mood disorders are characterized by disturbances in emotion, which includes both the depressed mood of depression and the elevated mood of mania  Two main types of depressed mood disorders o Unipolar Depression (Major Depression)  Symptoms:  Tired, little interest in doing anything, hard to get out of bed, little appetite, chronic headaches, muscle sores, slow movement, trouble concentrating on the task at hand, mind filled with negative thoughts and thoughts of suicide  Can present itself in a less severe form and not every symptom needs to be present for a clinician to make a diagnosis  Episodes are recurrent, but left untreated, can last for several months  In between episodes, a person usually returns to normal functioning  Because of suicide risk and the harmful effects to social well-being and physical health, it is not advisable to leave depression untreated  Dysthemia – chronic mild depression; symptoms of depression that are less severe, but affected person rarely returns to normal levels of functioning in between bouts of depression o Bipolar Depression  Alternate between episodes of severe depression and mania  Mania – when a person experiences heightened self-esteem, activity, and energy and sleep very little o Thoughts are racing ahead of ability to deal with them o May do things that are potentially risky – sexual promiscuity, high-risk business investments and unrestrained buying sprees o May became very angry at anyone who serves as an obstacle to his fanciful goals  Causes of Depression o Biological Model – points to abnormal levels of chemical activity of neurotransmitters in brain  Treatment: drug therapy  Antidepressants – change the balance of neurotransmitters Video Lecture Psych 1X03 o Behavioural Model  Suggests that depression arises in individuals who lack social skills, making it difficult
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