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Joe Kim (989)

Problem Solving and Intelligence Video Lecture Psych 1X03

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Joe Kim

Video Lecture Psych 1X03 Problem Solving and Intelligence  Intelligence: The cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information and cope with the demands of daily living  Edward Boring – intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure o Fails to capture important cognitive features of intelligence  Psychologists tend to make two assumptions o Intelligence involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from experience and adapt Deductive and Inductive Reasoning  Deductive Reasoning o Idea  Conclusion  Inductive Reasoning o Fact  Conclusion  Arc of Knowledge o Start with a general theory about the world o Use inductive reasoning to generate a specific, testable hypothesis about the data we expect to obtain o Through experimentation, collect data at the bottom of the arch o Use inductive reasoning to relate it to general theory in some meaningful way  Functioning Fixedness – our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects  The Qualities of a Test o Reliability – measures the extent to which repeated testing produces consistent results; a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times  Important for intelligence tests because psychologists assume that intelligence is a static, internal quality o Validity – measures the extent to which a test is actually measuring what the researcher claims to be measuring; a valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring o Eg/ On intelligence measurement – does a given test actually measure intelligence, or does it measure your ability to answer certain types of questions or your writing speed? o Francis Galton – recorded how quickly subjects would respond to sensory motor tests by their reaction time; equated faster reaction time with higher intelligence o Alfred Binet – produced the first the first intelligence scale; develop a tool that would help identify public school children who needed special education  Included 3 short tasks related to everyday life  Children were asked to name parts of the body, compare lengths and weights, name objects in a picture and define words  A student from Stanford adapted the scale – became known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test  Charles Spearman – firm believer in the idea of a single type of intelligence o Observed that most people who performed well on classical intelligence tasks performed well on all kinds of tasks (vocabulary, math, special abilities etc)  reasoned that this was because there is one generalized intelligence which he named “g” Video Lecture Psych 1X03  Multiple Intelligences o Multiple intelligence theory and intelligence test proposed by Howard Gardner o Eight different types that are independent of each other  Verbal  Mathematical  Musical  Spatial  Kinesthetic  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalist o Ignores Spearman’s observation that people who perform well on one type of intelligence test are likely to do well on others  Welcher Scales o Originally based on Binet Scale but has been developed significantly o Weschler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) o Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) o Standardized to produce an intelligence quotient for each individual o IQ scoring is based on the results of large samples of individuals who have taken the test o Someone who achieves the mean score will be assigned an IQ of 100 o IQ scores surrounding the mean are assigned round a perfect normal distribution with a standard deviation of 15 o IQ is relative to the performance of the rest of the population  Nature vs. Nurture o Researchers use correlational studies to determine whether intelligence results from genetic or environmental differences o Twin Studies  Compare identical twins (100% common genes) and fraternal twins (%0% common genes)  Found that IQ measures between identical twins showed a strong positive correlation; +0.8 > +0.6 positive correlation found for fraternal twins  Suggests a role for genes in the development of intelligence  +0.6 is still higher than expected for two randomly selected individuals from the population – environmental factors must also play an important role  Identical twins raised in different environments still have a correlation on +0.73  The Flynn Effect – Raw IQ test scores have been on the rise since 1932 o Increased quality of schooling has played a large role in this increase o Increased access to information and ideas, through books, TV and the internet o Increased nutrition ad health  Jean Piaget – eminent psychologist whole developed one of the most influential theories of intellectual development o Fundamental idea was that children are active learners; by manipulating and exploring their environments, children incorporate new information into what they know  Schema – a mental framework for interpreting the world around us  Assimilation – incorporating new information into existing schemas  Accommodation –
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