Class Notes (836,271)
Canada (509,735)
Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)
Lecture 5

Lecture 5-Language.doc

4 Pages
119 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Language -Researchers have identifies 3 criteria that outline a culture 1. Language is regular, its governed by rules and grammar 2. Language is arbitrary, lack or resemblance b/w words and their meanings -Ex: nothing about the word cat that indicates its an animal with whiskers and a tail -If the sound we used to identify an object describes that object in a way, wouldn’t make sense to call the same object a cat in english and something else in a diff. language 3. Language is productive, limitless ways to combine words to describe objects/situations/actions TheWhorf-SapirHypothesis -Language and thought are not the same thing, but thoughts do take the form of language -language can influence how we perceive the world -Evidence for this hypothesis: study of the piraha, tribe of hunter-gatherers in brazil -Their language only has three words: one, two, many--> tribe has trouble understanding concepts b/c their language lacks words for these distinctions -Did a test, and their performance got shittier when there were more than three objects -Evidence also goes against this hypothesis-> cultures lack words for relatives -Ex: certain indian tribe uses a single word to describe elder male relatives, they do understand the diff. b/w these individuals tho -Whereas koreans have specific names for every member of family, two names for uncle StructureofLanguage -Morphemes: smallest unit of sound that contains info, a word can contain multiple, but can also make a word -All languages contain some sounds, words, symbols to transmit info-morphemes -Ex: table is a word contains one morpheme, tablecloth is a word that contains two, tables have two too, all have their own info -Not the smallest units of language, a morpheme can be broken down into a phoneme -Ex: dog has three phonemes--> D, O, G -Languages have their own distinct rules about the order in which sounds and words can be combined -Grammar/Syntax: Rules that govern how words are put together, differences vary in cultures -Ex: french fuckers have different words for masculine and feminine words, english fuckers don’t -Semantics: Meaning of each word -Sentence can have syntactical structure but have no meaning--> the colorless green ideas sleep furiously LanguageDevelopment 12 weeks: cooing sounds 16 weeks: turns head towards voices 6 months: imitates sounds 1 year: babbles 2 years:50-250 words uses 2 word phrases 2.5 years: vocab > 850 words -Infants can only express their needs with crying, not until they develop language that they can communicate whats on their mind -Production of language increases through infancy and childhood -Babies show signs of language skills such as smiling at someone, this is followed by babbling, drawn-out sounds made up a variety of vowels and consonants, sounds legit cause of rhythm -Then when they get older they start repeating certain sounds which then forms the first words -1.5-6 years: children enter language explosion, vocab and syntax increases rapidly -Language production/comprehension can be limited by cognitive development and other factors -Kid can comprehend language but is limited by vocal anatomy -Psychologists developed methods to test their comprehension by examining kids responses to verbal stimuli SegmentationProblem -When a person speaks another language, the others think that he’s just talking really fast, they’d have issues separating the individual words -wanted to know wether or not kids can recognize words -Kids who had large vocabs had shown good speech segmentation skills as an infant -Kids who had small vocabs had shown shitty speech segmentation skills as an infant -Infant Directed speech: tendency for mothers to use higher pitch and exaggerated changes in pitch when speaking to infants -Can help infants learn language DifferentPhonemes -Infants can discriminate more phonemes than adults -Ex: if you speak english, wont have issues b/w ra and la phonemes -If you speak korean, wont have issues b/w ja and jja, but english fucker will be like wtf? but korean fucker will obvs. understand, one means to sleep and ones salty -Universal Phoneme Sensitivity: ability of infants to discriminate b/w sounds they are tested on, adults cant do this -Researchers relied on head turn procedure to determine this -Training phase: infant learns to discriminate two diff. phonemes, when he does it to a new sound he gets a doll -Second phase: a phoneme becomes habituated when it gets over played and kid stops replying -Then their are intr
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1X03

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit