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PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)

Online Lecture 1: Levels of analysis

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Joe Kim

MULTIPLELEVELSOFANALYSIS: -Help frame the research questionsthatwillbeexplored. Phychological biological Environmental PHYCHOLOGICAL: -Most intuitivelevel.(Withoutconsciousreasoning) -ApproachunderstandingofHuman thoughtand behavious. -Thislevel concerns itselfwiththe role of what happensin a subject’s mind. -How dothoughts memories and emtions motivate ouractions? -CASE STUDY:Lookingat howhisemotions and patterns ofthinking lie atthe core of his feelingsof isolation. BIOLOGICAL -Physiologicalmechanismsthatunderliethoughtsand behavious. -Includesthe studyof thefunction and structure of thebrain. -The moleculareffects of neurotransmittersand hormones and how genetic factors contribute.To behaviour -CASE STUDY:Role ofkey neurotransmitterssuchas serotoninin mood disorders and genetic factors that makethem moreprone to depressiveepisodes. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVEL - Concernedwithunderstandinghowsocial,cultural and learninginteractions can influencethoughtandbehaviour. - CASE STUDY:Condtionsthat triggered and maintain his depression.Workingto change theseexternalinfluencesmaybringpositivechange. PERSPECTIVESINPHYCHOLOGY Particularproblemsmaybe approachedfroma perspectivewhich hascertaingoals and involvesoneor more ofthe levelsofanalysis.Commonlyusedarefollows: Behavioural Cognitive Neauroscience Developmental Evolutionary Socio-Cultural BEHAVIOURIST PERSPECTIVE JohnB. Watson - Fatherof behaviourism. - Formalizingthemethodologyofresearch methodsinthefield. - Overt behaviouris the ONLY validmeansofmeasurein Phychology.(Overt meaning doneor shownopenly…notsecret ofhidden) - The onethatcreates the “BlackBox” - Roleof Nurtureover nature.Influencinghumanbehaviour. - Believedthatifhe were to takea dozenhealthyinfants,hecouldturnthem intoany one atrandomandturnthem intoanyspecializalistthathewouldchoose(Doctor, Lawyer, artists,merchant,begger, thief. - The “Black Box” - JohnWatsonconsideredthemindtobe an “Off-limits”blackbox. - Takesinputandmakes output. - Whathappensinsideshouldbeconsideredoutside thedomainofscience for the timebeing. -Researchesadoptedabehaviouralfocusondesigningcarefullycontrolledexperimentsto understandtheinfluenceoftheenvironmentallevelofanalysis. BF Skinner - Carriedonthe nurtureview. - Althoughinternalmentaleventsmustexist,theyremainedimpossibletomeasureina scientificway. - Everythingwe wantto knowaboutanorganismcan be gainedbystudyingit’s behaviour. - Present ananimalwithfood,you don’thaveto speculateit’smentalprocess ofhunger or cravings. - Generallawsof stimulusresponsecouldexplainorganismsrepeatingbehaviourifit leadsto somethingpleasantandnotrepeatifitis unpleasant. - Ideasformed the core of therapycalledbehaviourmodification. Itisusedin schools, mentalhospitalsandinformalbyparentsandpetowners. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE - Advocatesofpurebehaviouralhaveadvisedthatnotionsofstudyinginternaleventsof mindhadto be abandonedinorderfor phychto become a science. - The abovepositionwasnotaccepteduniversally. - Simplifiedtheviewofcomplexprocesses like memoryintostimulus-response relationships. - 1960’s cognitiverevolutionarguedthatphychmustreturnto an interestininternal eventsbut undertheright circumstances. - The newmovementargued properscientificmethodscanbe appliedtostudyinternal mentalprosesses. - Theseinternalprocessesare necessaryto fullyunderstandbehaviour. DEFINITION - Pure cognitiveoperatesatthe phychologicallevelofanalysis. - Not concernedwith describingthemindin terms ofphysiologyofthe brain. - Use MODELS toconstruct abstractrepresentationsofhowthe mindfunctions. - Used throughoutphychtocreate modifyandorganizeto explaincomplexproceses. - Modelscan be usedto make testablepredictions. MODELS - Use MODELS toconstruct abstractrepresentationsofhowthe mindfunctions. - Used throughoutphychtocreate modifyandorganizeto explain
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