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Psychology (5,209)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)

Module 2 notes

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Joe Kim

MODUAL 2 Starting off you will learn how to UNDERSTAND How scientists use the scientific method to conduct research, APPLY experimental design to scientifically evaluate a hypothesis USE proper control groups and sampling techniques to improve the validity of experimental results and EVALUATE participant and experimenter biases in scientific research. The goal of any scientist = discover new information to understand how the world works. They can go to the field (out of the lab) to study, or use tools in-lab to study. They must find a way to collect and analyze data to produce reliable and meaningful results. How do they analyze data and test hypotheses that help us study the human thoughts and behaviours? Everyday life, we draw on people around us to come to conclusions such as whether to play that particular video game or which school to go to in the long run. This is based off of our friends and relatives. Scientists must use more rigorous approaches to understand research questions. There is a SEVEN step Recipe to selecting and analyzing information to minimise biases and conflicts in the data. VOCABULARY Paradigm Shift: The concept that views and theories of the world can be changed. It is challenging current theories and causing the shift to more accurate theories. Anecdotal Evidence Evidence gathered from others or self-experience. Experiment A scientific tool to measure the effect of one variable on another. The scientist manipulates the Independent variable on the Dependent variable. Practice Effect: Improved performance over the course on an experiment due to becoming more experienced. Confounding variable: A variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results. Placebo Effect Occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect. Participant Bias When a participant’s actions influence the results outside of the manip. Of the experimenter. Experimenter Bias Actions made by the experimenter, intentionally or not, to promote the result they hope to achieve. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SEVEN 1. Theory 2. Generate Hypotheses 3. Choose research method 4. Collect data 5. Analyze 6. Report findings 7. Revise theory THEORY: A general set of ideas of how the world works HYPOTHESES: Theories lead to hypotheses- a testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about the relationships between variables. RESEARCH METHOD: Determine the way that the hypothesis can be tested. Allow them to… COLLECT DATA: Which would be to take measurements of the outcomes of a test. For example… how many people preferred product A to product B. ANALYZE DATA: To understand the data and discover trends or relationships between variables… for example, there was an increase in intelligence when kids were exposed to Mozart. This leads to an ultimate accepting or rejection of the initial hypothesis and later the theory. REPORT FINDINGS Publish articles in scholarly journals. It undergoes rigorous reviews. REVISE THEORIES Incorporate the new information into our understanding of the world. Science is dynamic, so they can change at any time. CASE STUDY Eric is watching TV and sees infomercial on an energy drink that claims to help with study due to its’ memory enhancing properties. Eric wants to test whether or not the energy drink will actually help with studying. Theory: The energy drink will help enhance study skills. The test performances will increase positively if the subject drinks the energy drink. This assumes that the test scores and be influenced by external factors. Hypothesis: The hypothesis is that students consuming energy drinks will be significantly better at the test than those NOT taking energ
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