Class Notes (834,582)
Canada (508,621)
Psychology (5,208)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)
Lecture

Module 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
MODUAL 2 Startingoffyou will learnhowto UNDERSTAND How scientistsusethe scientificmethodto conductresearch, APPLY experimentaldesigntoscientificallyevaluateahypothesis USE propercontrolgroupsandsamplingtechniquestoimprovethevalidityofexperimental resultsandEVALUATE participantandexperimenterbiasesinscientificresearch. The goalof anyscientist= discover newinformationtounderstandhowtheworld works. Theycan go to the field(outofthe lab)to study,or use toolsin-labtostudy. Theymustfinda wayto collect andanalyzedatatoproducereliableandmeaningfulresults. How dotheyanalyzedataandtesthypothesesthathelpusstudythe humanthoughtsand behaviours? Everydaylife, we drawonpeoplearoundusto come to conclusionssuchaswhether toplay thatparticularvideogameor whichschoolto go toin the longrun.Thisis basedoffofour friendsandrelatives. Scientistsmustuse more rigorousapproachesto understandresearchquestions. There is a SEVEN step Recipeto selectingandanalyzinginformationtominimisebiasesand conflictsin the data. VOCABULARY ParadigmShift: The conceptthatviews andtheoriesofthe worldcan be changed.It is challengingcurrent theoriesandcausingthe shiftto more accuratetheories. Anecdotal Evidence Evidencegatheredfrom othersor self-experience. Experiment A scientifictoolto measurethe effect ofonevariableonanother.Thescientistmanipulatesthe Independentvariable onthe Dependentvariable. Practice Effect: Improvedperformanceover the courseon an experimentduetobecomingmore experienced. Confoundingvariable: A variableotherthantheindependentvariablethathasaneffect onthe results. Placebo Effect Occurs when anindividualexhibitsaresponsetoa treatmentthathasno relatedtherapeutic effect. Participant Bias Whena participant’sactionsinfluencetheresultsoutsideofthemanip.Of theexperimenter. ExperimenterBias Actionsmadebythe experimenter,intentionallyornot,to promotetheresulttheyhopeto achieve. SCIENTIFICMETHODSEVEN 1. Theory 2. GenerateHypotheses 3. Chooseresearchmethod 4. Collectdata 5. Analyze 6. Reportfindings 7. Revise theory THEORY: A general set ofideasofhowtheworld works HYPOTHESES: Theoriesleadtohypotheses-a testablestatementguidedbytheoriesthatmakespecific predictionsabouttherelationshipsbetweenvariables. RESEARCH METHOD: Determinethe waythatthe hypothesiscanbe tested.Allowthem to… COLLECT DATA: Whichwouldbe to take measurementsofthe outcomesofa test.For example…howmany peoplepreferredproductA toproductB. ANALYZE DATA: To understandthedataanddiscovertrendsor relationshipsbetweenvariables…forexample, there was anincrease inintelligencewhenkids were exposedtoMozart. Thisleadsto anultimateacceptingor rejectionofthe initialhypothesisandlaterthetheory. REPORT FINDINGS Publisharticlesinscholarlyjournals.Itundergoesrigorous reviews. REVISE THEORIES Incorporatethenewinformationintoourunderstandingofthe world. Science is dynamic,so theycan change at anytime. CASESTUDY Ericis watchingTVandsees infomercialonanenergydrinkthatclaimsto helpwithstudydue to its’memoryenhancingproperties. Ericwants totest whether or nottheenergy drinkwill actuallyhelpwithstudying. Theory: The energydrinkwill helpenhancestudyskills.The testperformanceswill increasepositivelyif the subjectdrinksthe energydrink.Thisassumesthatthe test scores andbe influencedby externalfactors. Hypothesis: The hypothesisisthatstudentsconsumingenergydrinkswill be significantlybetteratthe test thanthoseNOT takingenergydrinks. Anecdotal ev
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