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Influence on others 1&2.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Monday, November 18 2013 Influence of Others (1) o Module 2: Presence of Others  Ex. Cyclists: Normal Triplett observed that cyclists competing as a group raced faster compared to individual cyclists competing against the clock.  When against other people the competition increases  The presence of other people important for the performance of the actor.  Co-Actors: other individuals performing the same task as you.  Audience: A group of people watching an individual perform a task  Social Facilitation: the increases performance that occurs in the presence of co-actors or an audience. The presence of co-actors or an audience affected performance on a variety of tasks (this can also be related to the Hawthorne effect)  The presence of others can hinder performance on tasks such as learning non-sense syllabus, completing a difficult maze, or solving complex math problems  Zajonc’s Resolution  The presence of other increases the arousal to improve performance on simple tasks and decreases performance on complex tasks.  People who are an expert at what they are doing will do better than others because over time they have gained the knowledge of doing that task, therefore it becoming relatively simple for them to complete.  A task that is unpracticed becomes complex and will do worse to performing the task in front of others.  It all depends on your preparation for the given task o Module 3: Social Learning Theory  Albert Bandura:  Social theory: You learn appropriate behaviors by modeling and imitating the behavior of others.  This is different from basic conditioning because the behaviours you learn from others do not always require explicit reinforcement to develop (people copy by imitating you)  The Bobo Doll Experiment  Young kids were placed in a playroom, and an adult would appear in the playroom and would model either aggressive or passive play with the toys in the room. When the adult left, the kids mimicked the actions of the adult.  This behavior from the kids was spontaneous, with no explicit reinforcement or encouragement. o Module 4: Conformity  Sherif and Norm Function  Conducted an experiment called the auto kinetic effect.  When with a group of people , others in that group will influence your decision/perspective by their perspective. Also known as norm formation.  Asch’s Stimuli  Asch found that on average, 37% of all responses conformed to a clearly incorrect answer.  75% conformed to an incorrect answer on at least one trial. 1. The normative function: is the role of others in setting norms or standards of conduct. Example: this can be seen through fashion trends and pop-culture. They set these standards in fear of rejection or isolation by others. 2. Comparative function: The role of others in providing information about an ambiguous situation. You will first see what other people are doing and follow what they are doing because you don’t know what to do.  What to do in an unknown situation o Module 5: Group Dynamics  James Stoner (Risky shift effect): People are more likely to be risky when the situation is less risky and vice versa.  Example: Rogers life insurance, he has a stable by low paying job. He should not risk that because it risks his whole family as well.  Group Polarization: Group decision making strengthens the original inclinations of the individual group members.  Groupthink: A group decision making environment that occurs when group cohesiveness becomes so strong it overrides realistic appraisals of reality and alternative opinions (mob-mentality).  Groups failing victim to groupthink often believe that they are unquestionably right and all other groups are wrong. (Example: Mean Girls)  Some things to consider when you’re making a decision in a group: 1. Be impartial (group leader should never endorse any particular position from the outset) 2. Encourage Critical evaluation (allow group members to disagree) 3. Subdivide the group 4. Provide a second chance o The Bystander Effect  Kitty Genovese story: She was murdered in her apartment buildings and there were 38 witnesses watching her murder, yet no one came to help or called 911.  The reason why the witnesses did not reach for help was because they say that many other people were also watching, and each assumed that the police had already been called by someone else, so it wasn’t necessary for them to do so.  The very presence of so many witnesses was in part responsible of the lack of action by any one of them.  An individual has to uncover two key decision before they decide to react: 1. Emergency? (An individual must decide whether the situation is truly an emergency 2. Response required? (Whether this situation requires them to personally respond)  If both answers are yes, then the individual will most likely to respond.  When situated with other people (in a group) the likely hood of responding decreases because assuming that other people noticed the situation and already dealt with it.  Collective Ignorance: When each individual in a group see nobody responding in a given situation, they conclude that they situation is not an emergency.  Diffusion of Responsibility: In deciding whether we have to act, we determine that someone else in the group is more qualified, therefore we are less likely to act.  When seeking
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