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PSYCH 1X03 (1,055)
Joe Kim (989)

Psych lecture

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psychology 1X03: Research Methods 1&2 Notes The scientific Method  The goal of scientists is to discover new information about how the world works  they collect data and from that they test hypothesis which helps them understand human though and behavior  scientists who are conduction research in any field have to carefully consider how to collect and analyze their data to produce reliable and meaningful results  Scientists begin by studying the existing collection of info about the world, for instance: the world published by other scientists. This info then helps them construct a theory- which is a general set of ideas about the way that the world works  This theory guides to the creation of the set of testable statements which are known as hypotheses-A hypothesis makes specific predictions about the relationship between variables involved in the theory  The next step is selecting a research method that is appropriate to test the hypothesis at hand.  Methods such as experiments that allow scientists to collect data about how the events of the world unfold which may or may not be in line with their hypothesis  Scientists analyze the data to note any specific trends or relationships that the research has revealed, which can lead to the decision to accept or reject the original hypothesis  The scientists and the scientific community as a whole review all findings on a topic to( before you revise you report you findings) revise existing theories that define our current understanding about the world  Theories are continually being revised to account for new information, that it is a particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking. This is known as a paradigm shift  Anecdotal Evidence- Evidence gathered from others or self experience Problems with a makeshift experiment- Testing a hypothesis 1. single experience might not be representative  image of a person`s experience vs. further future experiences 2. Personal experience might not represent others  Image of a person's experience vs. other people`s experiences 3. Cannot be sure that result is due to energy drinks alone  imagine of a person`s experience vs. other additional variables Using an Experiment 1. Experiment: Scientific tool that is used to measure the effect of one variable on another 2. Independent Variable: Variable manipulated by the scientist 3. Dependent Variable: Variable being observed by the scientist Using Control Groups  a well designed control group is a critical aspect of experimental design. In its simplest form an experiment contains two groups: 1. Experimental 2. control group  the experimental group will receive the manipulation of the independent variable during the experiment while the control group will not.  From this we can then compare the dependent variable to measure for both groups Within-Subjects Design  manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effort of external variables on the dependent measures  EX. If someone is doing an experiment on energy drinks they will perform some tests with the drink to see their test marks and some tests without to compare and see. Subject Designs  It's possible that a participants performance improves over the course of an experiment simply because they have become more experienced.  This is called practice effect they can be reduced by the control of the experiment because it is hard to separate this natural improvement from the effect of manipulating the independent variable (improved performance over the course of an experiment because they are becoming more experienced.) Between subjects Design
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