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Psychology (5,208)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)

Psych lecture

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Joe Kim

Psychology 1X03: Forming Impressions • We immediately make automatic judgments about a person that influence us about how we think, feel, and behave towards that person Correspondent Inference Theory  According to Jones and David correspondent inference theory, you actively analyze a person`s behavior to make inferences based on three variables: 1. Degree of choice 2. expectation 3. intended consequences of the behavior Degree of choice • To understand why a person is behaving in a particular way, it helps to know if he chose t act in the observed behavior in question • Despite its logic you may sometimes have difficulty appreciating the role of degree of choice in a chosen behavior • And so, you may develop strong emotional feelings for or against a movie actor who you assume I really that romantic or that slimy in real life Expectation • Uncommon behavior gives us a lot more information than common behavior • if someone behaves in a way typical to what you would expect from them, you do not have any reason to infer an underlying cause of their behavior Intention • for example, if you watched a commercial that advocated lower smocking levels which you knew was sponsored by a tobacco company, you may suspect that the motivation behind this message was driven by a hidden goal= perhaps you may suspect that the tobacco company real goal is to look like a caring corporate citizen • You probably wouldn't have the same suspicion if you heard you sister advocating the same position Kelley`s covariation theory  predicts how you determine if a given behavior is due to an individual's personal disposition OR the situation and the circumstances.  EX. computer not working it the guys fault or the computer it self  THREE VARAIBLES: 1. Consistency 2. Distinctiveness 3. Consensus Consistency • Does the individual usually behave this way in this situation? Distinctiveness • Does the individual behave differently in different situations? • if YES --> Situational if NO---> Dispositional • In this case you might ask does he have trouble with other computers or just this one ? if yes this the current problem is due to his end, if No then the trouble is with that computer and machine Consensus • Do others behave similarly in this situation? • if YES--> Situational if NO---> Disposition • You might ask: do other people have trouble with Chris`s computer, or is it just him? If everyone has trouble with this computer its likely use to a problem specific to the computer The Fundamental Attribution Error • Tendency to over-value dispositional factors for the observed behaviours of other while under-valuing situational factors • The term itself was coined by the psychologist Ross, who presented an influential argument for the place of the FAE in social psychology. • Later the psychologist found Ross`s term "overly proactive and somewhat misleading" and added "furthermore I am angry I did not think of that myself" The Actor/Observer Effect • FUNDAMENTALATTRUBUTION ERROR--> assume behaviour of others are primarily due to distortional factors • ACTOR OBSERVER EFFECT --> Consider the situational factors of your own behaviour • EX. a study was done in 2004 of young drivers that were asked to explain the reasons for their own and their friends risky driving behaviour. Although teenagers were more likely to attribute their own risky driving to situational factors, such as being in a hurry or feeling pressure from peers they were more likely to attribute their friends risky driving behaviours to personal factors, such as having fun and showing off. CULTRAL DIFFERENCES IN YOUNGER GROUPS CULTRAL DIFFERENCES IN THE OLDER GROUPS - comparisons with other different cultures have shown similar results. -Morris and Peng in 1994 compared attributions made by the US and the Chinese students (look at the picture) -Also this can be compared to the Olympics because the US: Gold medal winners are more likely to attribute their hold to their determination and talent CHINESE: gold medal winners are more likely to attribute their gold winning to their performance success due to their coaching team Self-Serving Basis • This refers to the tendency to perceive yourself as favourable • One of these is the "above average effect" which means that you identify dispositional causes for your successes but situational causes to your failures, giving you an exaggerated view of yo
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