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Lesson 3- Classical Conditioning.pdf

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Joe Kim

Classical Conditioning 1 (Module) Unit 1: Introduction to Learning Ivan Pavlov • Dogs would salivate even before their food was delivered into their mouth • Sound of metronome following training triggered salivation of dogs • “Conditional reflex” Contingencies • Studying a contingent relationship: the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. • Association between a signal and an event means a contingency has been formed between two stimuli. Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning: the learning of a contingency between a particular signal and a later event that are paired in time and/or space Terminologies: The Unconditioned • Unconditioned Stimulus: any stimulus or event • Occurs naturally, prior to learning • Unconditioned Response: the response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus • Occurs naturally, prior to any learning The Conditional Stimulus • Conditioned Stimulus: paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency • previously neutral stimulus that after becoming associated with a US, eventually comes to trigger a response on its own • Conditional Stimulus: typically appears before the US • may take several trials of training in which the CS and US are paired before the CS alone elicits a response • when this occurs, the organism has learned a contingent relationship between the two stimuli The Conditional Response • Conditioned Response: the response that occurs once the contingency between the CU and US has been learned Initially the CS did not elicit a response • • Following pairing with the unconditional stimulus the CS begins to elicit a conditional response (often similar to the UR) Subtopic:Acquisition • Acquisition: process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned • Most learning occurs during early trials (negatively accelerated increasing function) • Dietary Neophobia: avoidance of unfamiliar foods (rats can learn contingency in a single trial) Unit 4: Extinction Lasting Effects • Extinction: the loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US • Presenting the CS alone (without the US) repeatedly over many trials without US • Over many trials response becomes weaker and weaker Inhibition • If the contingency is simply unlearned, we would expect that following extinction, retraining between the CS and US would lead to acquisition of the CR at the same rate as the original training • If extinction leads to a new learning, the learning of an inhibitory response to the CS, this would suggest that there exists two learned processes that sit side by side • The original learned response to the CS and a new inhibitory learned response to the CS • Would expect relearning to take place quicker Spontaneous Recovery • Suggests that extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response • Following a rest period, the CS is presented once more and it elicits a CR again. • Suggests that original learned association between the CS and US is not unlearned. • Extinction seems to promote a learned inhibitory response that competes with the original learned contingency ▯ Unit 5: Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus Generalization Classical conditioning of learned responses to a variety of different stimuli occurs through a • process called stimulus generalization • Stimuli similar to CS will often also produce a CR The Generalization Gradient • Presentation variations of original CS will produce different CRs, depending on similarity to original CS • Adds flexibility and efficiency to classical conditioning • If US is potentially harmful, you will not require separate conditioning experiences to learn relationship • Instead, will generalize learning to avoid similar CSs that cue potential danger Gen
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