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Lesson 9-Memory.pdf

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Memory Memory (Module) Introduction to Memory: Common Memory Metaphors: • Video camera, filing cabinet, computer RAM Each of these assume memory can be stored in their original undistorted form and that it is as • easy as accessing previously stored items that have been kept in a box The Basics of Memory: Types of Questions: • Questions about memory acquisition • Questions about memory storage • Questions about memory retrieval The Importance of Cues: • One memory acts as a cue to another memory Testing our hypothesis: • Psychologists rely on cognitive models to understand a complex cognitive function like memory • Models describe and organize data and most importantly, make specific testable predictions that can be studies in the lab • Basic memory tasks involve two phases • During the encoding phase, a subject learns a list of items words, or pictures Recall & Recognition: People who are instructed to memorize the list will do better than those who are distracted • Hermann Ebbinghaus: • Over time, more and more words will be forgotten
 “forgetting curve”, which describes this increasing rate of memory failure over time Memory The Multi-Store Model: The Multi Store Model: • Memory is composed of both short and long-term storage systems • Incoming perceptual information is first stored in a short-term memory buffer (similar to RAM on a computer), not stored permanently • Important information encoded in short-term memory can be transferred to the long-term memory system for permanent storage George Miller: • Remembering 7 number +-2 is the average number of numbers our short term memory can hold Chunking: • Words and numbers can be chunked together into familiar bits to increase short term memory storage The Serial Position Curve: Primacy: • Primacy Effect: memory for items earlier in list are remembered more easily • Items at the beginning of the list will be the first to enter short-term memory and thus have the most opportunity to be rehearsed Recency: • Recency Effect: recall for later items on the list is also good • Stored in short term memory the latest Improving Primacy: • Increased interval between the showings of each item would increase primacy compared to short intervals Diminishing Recency: • Performing a distracting task right after viewing the items and before rec
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