Instrumental conditioning – Psych lecture #4
Instrumental conditioning: Learning a contingency between a behaviour and its consequences.
• What follows – increase/decrease the likelihood of the occurrence of that behaviour
• Positive consequences/ negative consequences.
• Contingency - behaviour + consequences
• Type of Behaviour – Conscious/voluntary
• Example: Study more frequently = if get better grades /
• Increase behaviour : reward training/ removal of a negative reinforcer (escape training)
• Decrease behaviour : presentation of a negative reinforcer/ removal of a postive reinforcer
o Reward training : Positive reinforcement
o Punishment training: Adding a negative component
o Escape training: Emphasizing a negative reinforcement
o Omission training: Removing the positive stimuli. - remove the unpleasant factor from
o Autoshaping : Development of an instrumentally conditioned response occurs in the
absence of direct training.
o Shaping by successive approximation : Involves reinforcing small steps toward a
• Schedules of Reinforcement
o Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforced every trial
o Partial Reinforcement