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Lecture 2

Psych lecture 2 Research methods.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psych lecture #2 : Research methods The scientific method: • Theory -> Hypothesis -> research method -> Collect Data ->Analyze data -> Report findings -> Revise theory. o Theory :An idea, a sort of a questions  Ageneral set of ideas about hoe the world works. o Hypothesis : Set of testable questions, “if & then.” In a form of something that is testable.  Aspecific prediction related to the variables in a theory. o Research methods: Design the experiment out Experiment: Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another  IV – variable manipulated by the scientist/experimenter  DV – Variable being observed by the student (measurements) o Collect Data: Run the experiment, collect statistics, avoid the biases while measuring data  Control Group: helps to compare with the experimental group.  As similar as possible to the experimental group  Confounding variable : an external variable other than the independent variable that is influencing out results  Can be avoided using random sampling and random assortment  Random sampling: choosing a sample at random from the entire population  Random assortment: Assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause difference between the groups of subjects.  Potential biases:  Subject biases – When the subjects' responses unconsciously change because thy are knowingly being studied  Experimenter bias – when the experimenter unconsciously influences
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