Psych lecture #2 : Research methods
The scientific method:
• Theory -> Hypothesis -> research method -> Collect Data ->Analyze data -> Report findings ->
o Theory :An idea, a sort of a questions
Ageneral set of ideas about hoe the world works.
o Hypothesis : Set of testable questions, “if & then.” In a form of something that is testable.
Aspecific prediction related to the variables in a theory.
o Research methods: Design the experiment out
Experiment: Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another
IV – variable manipulated by the scientist/experimenter
DV – Variable being observed by the student (measurements)
o Collect Data: Run the experiment, collect statistics, avoid the biases while measuring data
Control Group: helps to compare with the experimental group.
As similar as possible to the experimental group
Confounding variable : an external variable other than the independent variable
that is influencing out results
Can be avoided using random sampling and random assortment
Random sampling: choosing a sample at random from the entire
Random assortment: Assigning subjects to either the experimental or
control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause difference
between the groups of subjects.
Subject biases – When the subjects' responses unconsciously change
because thy are knowingly being studied
Experimenter bias – when the experimenter unconsciously influences