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development 2 web module notes winter 2014.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Winter

Description
Psych 1XX3 Joe Kim  Jan 6, 2014 Module 1‐2: Development II Chromosome and Genes:  Zygote (46 chromosomes, 23 each parent)  Chromosome: made up of DNA, comprise of genes, provides chemical code for  development Twins/Monozygotic:  Same sperm and ovum  Genetically identical Fraternal/Dizygotic:  Different sperm and ovum  Genetically different like two siblings  Genotype: an individuals inherited genes Phenotype: expression of genotype into observable traits  Genetic Expression 1) Simple Dominant‐Recessive Inheritance: a. A pattern of inheritance in which the expression of a trait is determined by a  single pair of alleles, only dominant allele expressed 2) Polygenetic inheritance: a. When multiple genes are involved in expression of trait (e.g weight, height) 3) Codominance: 1 Psych 1XX3 Joe Kim  Jan 6, 2014 a. Two dominant alleles both fully and equally expressed, to produce a phenotype  that is compromise between the two genes (e.g offspring with A and B blood  type expresses equall  AB blood type) 4) Sex‐linked inheritance a. Genes expressed on X‐chromosome b. Females is less frequent to express the recessive allele since they have two x‐ chromosomes while male only has 1(females rarely express sex‐linked  inheritance disorders,  but often are carriers)  Extreme Behaviourist Point of View:  Watson: nurture all important  Genetic point of view:  predetermined by inherited genes, environment is minimal effect  Canalization Principle: 2 Psych 1XX3 Joe Kim  Jan 6, 2014  genotype restricts the phenotype to a small number of possible developmental  outcomes  some developmental processes are buffered against environment variability  Babbling example: all infants babble in the same way, independent of environment.  cultural differences affect phonemes later in life  The Range of Reaction Principle:  genotype establishes a range of possible responses to different kind of life experiences  (e.g height)  range of height determined by genetic factors  ‐genes determine the range of potentials for different traits, and the input that you  receive from your environment influences how your genotype is expressed as a  phenotype.   How do genes affect environment? 1) Passive Genotype/Environmental Correlations: ‐the environment that parents choose to
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