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PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)


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Joe Kim

Abnormality Notes prepared by Raagula Sivayoganathan What is abnormality? - Is not one particular behaviour - It varies between people and culture - Many guidelines exist to define abnormality o Deviance – thoughts and behaviour are outside of the social beliefs o Distress – has intense negative feelings o Dysfunction – behaviour interferes with person’s abilty to function in their daily lives (prevents them from interacting with their social interaction) o Danger – to oneself or to others; ex. suicidal behaviour or engages in behaviour that dangers others Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM) - Two main functions o Categories clinical symptoms and outlines disorders o Allows two clinicians to use the same language to talk about disorders - Has two diagnostic category o Disorder must originate within the person, must not develop as a reaction to outside problems o Disorder is involuntary – they cannot control their behaviour - Has 6 axis (or categories) in which a person is assessed for abnormality among other things - DSM does not have treatment plans for disorders, it is more for diagnostic purposes Many Models exist as to how a particular disorder came to be: - You can read these models as level of analysis (they use various level of analysis to understand the origin/cause of a disorder - Biological Model o Believes psychological disorders have a biological root - disorders are result of brain injury or due to neurotransmitter malfunction o Points genetics, drugs, and neurotransmitters to explain psychological problems o Uses drugs to treat disorders o Believes problem is inside - Psychodynamic Model o Idea came from Freud o Disorders results from unconscious problems o Physical therapy is not useful, and believes psychological therapy helps patient eliminate their psychological problems - Behaviourist Model o Believe problem is not inside, but are caused by outside external issues o They use classical conditioning and reinforcement to treat psychological problems o Not always effective (ex. can’t treat Schizophrenia patients who hear voices) - Cognitive Model o Believe psychological disorders arise from the way we interpret and understand our environment o Interpreting behaviour leads to different behavioural outcomes o Used in theory to change person’s interpretation of situations - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy o Uses cognitive and behavioural understanding of psychological problems to treat patients Mood Disorders - Major Depression (Unipolar disorder) o Fatigue, negative thoughts, sleep problems, suicidal thoughts, loss interest in usual pleasurable activities o Feelings of hopelessness also common o Often chronic – if untreated - Dysthymia o Mildly form of depression o There base level of functioning is depression o Chronic - Bipolar Disorder o Had depression and mania o Mani is increase self-esteem, grandiose plan, - Causes of depression o Different models point to different causes of depression o Biological Model  Caused by imbalance in neurotransmitter  Uses drugs to reduce symptoms and eliminate disorder – works by modifying neurotransmitters o Behavioural Model  Depressed individuals lack social skills necessary to interact with others  Use depression as a way of getting sympathy and attention  Symptoms can be reinforced  Learned helplessness – learn to remain passive to their problems o Cognitive Model  Maladaptive way of evaluating and interpreting situations cause depression - Many treatment practices used o CBT very effective but is often combined with drug treatment Anxiety Disorders - Intense prolonged felling of stress and fear - They have future orientated fear - Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Worry about future orientated situations o They are worried about how they will react to situations o Difficulty concentrating, sleep problems, eating problems, so on - OCD o Has two components  Obsession – a thought that invades a person from doing other things  Compulsion – does a ritual to reduce obsession , knows the compulsion is ridiculous but does that anyway (makes them feel better) - Post-traumatic Stress Disorder o Results from an initial exposure to danger or death of closed relation o Reliving of a trauma o Avoids situations, and people that remind them of the event o PTSD symptoms start late and lasts up to many months o Often feel scared, depressed, have nightmares and so on Treatment - Psychodynamic
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